引用本文:黄国勤,赵其国.中国典型地区轮作休耕模式与发展策略[J].土壤学报,2018,55(2):283-292.
HUANG Guoqin,ZHAO Qiguo.Mode of Rotation/Fallow Management in Typical Areas of China and Its Development Strategy[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(2):283-292
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中国典型地区轮作休耕模式与发展策略
黄国勤1, 赵其国2
1.江西农业大学生态科学研究中心/江西省高校生态学学科联盟;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所
摘要:
当前,全国各地正在按照党中央的战略部署,积极探索实行耕地轮作休耕制度试点,探索科学合理的轮作休耕模式与方法对于我国农业发展的未来具有重要意义。2017年3—6月,中国科学院南京土壤研究所赵其国院士率领中国科学院学部咨询项目“探索实行耕地轮作休耕制度试点问题咨询研究组”的各位成员,深入江苏省、湖南省、河北省的典型地区进行耕地轮作休耕考察和调研,通过深入田间地头实地察看,与干部、群众座谈交流,获取了大量的第一手资料,同时结合已有的文献资料,经过归纳总结提炼,总结分析了我国连作障碍区(江苏省)、重金属污染区(湖南省)和地下水漏斗区(河北省)的三个典型地区的轮作休耕模式与技术措施。在连作障碍区主要采取轮作和休耕措施(冬耕晒垡模式、冬种绿肥模式、种植豆类模式和增肥培肥模式);在重金属污染区进行的轮作休耕模式主要有改种作物和品种、改良土壤、科学灌溉、控制吸收和“VPI+n”创新污染治理模式;在地下水漏斗区主要采取季节性休耕和周年休耕的模式。三大典型区域在实施相应的轮作休耕模式后,其经济社会生态效益得到了相应显著提高。同时对我国典型地区的轮作休耕模式与方法提出了“四项原则”、“四个统一”和采取“八大措施”的建议。在不同地区实施轮作休耕应因地制宜,分类实施推进耕地轮作休耕发展对策,为我国科学推行轮作休耕制度试点工作提供现实参考。
关键词:  耕地  轮作  休耕  耕作制度改革  农业可持续发展
DOI:10.11766/trxb201708250387
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院学部咨询项目(2016ZWH002A-002)
Mode of Rotation/Fallow Management in Typical Areas of China and Its Development Strategy
HUANG Guoqin1, ZHAO Qiguo2
1.Research Center on Ecological Science,Jiangxi Agricultural University/Colleges and Universities Union of Ecology in Jiangxi Province;2.Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
[Objective] Currently, researchers all over the country are actively exploring farmland rotation/fallow systems for pilot farms and developing scientific and rational rotation/fallow modes or methods, which is of profound significance to future development of the agriculture in China. [ Methods ] During the period from March to June of 2017, a group of scientists of the Consultation and Research Team for Exploring and Implementing Rotation/Fallow Systems in Pilot Farms investigated the experiments of rotation/fallow systems implemented in areas typical of Jiangsu, Hunan and Hebei Provinces, examined the experiment fields and discussed with local leaders and farmers. Generalization, summarization and analysis were made of the large volumes of data and information obtained during their investigation trips coupled with the data available in the literature. Modes of the rotation/fallow systems and their corresponding technical measures in the three typical areas, i.e. mono-cropping obstacle area ( Jiangsu Province ), heavy metal pollution area ( Hunan Province ) and groundwater funnel area ( Hebei Province ), were summarized and analyzed, too. [ Results ] In Jiangsu, modes, like winter fallow including tillage and sunning, growing winter green manure crops, intercropping with bean crops; and other soil fertility building measures are practiced and advocated, in Hunan. planting new varieties of crops, soil amelioration, scientific irrigation, control of crop uptake of heavy metals and "VPI + n", an innovative pollution control pattern are and in Hebei, seasonal fallow and annual fallow are. Relatively and significantly higher economic, social and ecological benefits are achieved after adoption and implementation of the rotation/fallow modes in the three typical regions. Besides, ”our principles”, “four unifications” and “eight important measures” are brought forth for the rotation/fallow systems in the three typical areas of China. [Conclusion] Different rotation/fallow modes should be adopted site-specifically in different regions and step by step by sort. This paper is expected to be able to provide some practical reference for the pilot experiments and scientific extrapolation of the rotation/fallow system.
Key words:  Cultivated land  Rotation  Fallow  Farming system reform  Agricultural sustainable development