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长期施肥对红壤旱地团聚体特性及不同组分钾素分配的影响
柳开楼1, 黄 晶1, 张会民1, 李冬初1, 韩天富1, 蔡泽江1, 王伯仁1, 黄庆海2
1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所/耕地培育技术国家工程实验室;2.江西省红壤研究所/国家红壤改良工程技术研究中心
摘要:
基于祁阳红壤旱地长期施肥定位试验,选取CK(不施肥)、NP(氮磷肥配施)、NPK(氮磷钾肥配施)、NPKM(氮磷钾肥和猪粪配施)和NPKS(氮磷钾肥和秸秆半量还田)处理,于试验26年(2016年)玉米收获后采集不同施肥处理原状土壤(全土),分析土壤团聚体组分中全钾、非交换性钾和交换性钾含量变化,并进一步探讨土壤团聚体组分钾对全土钾的贡献率及其与作物吸钾量的相关关系。结果表明:(1)在所有处理中,NPKM处理下>2 mm、1~2 mm和0.5~1 mm的团聚体组分比例最高,但0.053~0.25 mm和<0.053 mm的团聚体组分比例则显著低于其他处理,而NPKS处理下>2 mm、1~2 mm和0.5~1 mm的团聚体组分比例则无显著增加。(2)与NPK处理相比,NPKM处理各团聚体组分中非交换性钾和交换性含量分别增加24.37%~49.04%和82.02%~176.3%,且NPKM处理下较大的团聚体组分(>0.5 mm)中全钾、交换性钾和非交换性钾对全土全钾、交换性钾和非交换性钾的贡献率显著增加(增幅分别为6.25%~31.97%、5.72%~43.16%和6.33%~41.98%),而在较小粒级团聚体组分(<0.25 mm)中则呈下降趋势(降幅分别为14.37%~21.44%、17.04%~33.66%和34.40%~43.84%)。(3)NPKS处理各团聚体组分的非交换性钾和交换性钾含量以及各团聚体组分钾对全土钾的贡献率均与NPK处理无显著差异。(4)线性回归分析表明,当>0.25 mm团聚体组分钾对全土钾的贡献率增加1%时,作物吸钾量相应增加9.92~11.89 kg hm-2。长期化肥配施猪粪可显著改善红壤旱地的团聚体组分,进而提高团聚体组分钾对全土钾的贡献能力,促进作物对钾素的吸收。
关键词:  土壤钾  团聚体  红壤  长期试验  猪粪
DOI:10.11766/trxb201711050396
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41371293,41671301)和国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300901)资助
Effect of Long-term Fertilization on Aggregation Characteristics and Distribution of Potassium Fractions in Red Soil
LIU Kailou1, HUANG Jing1, ZHANG Huimin1, LI Dongchu1, HAN Tianfu1, CAI Zejiang1, WANG Boren1, HUANG Qinghai2
1.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land;2.Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil, National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement
Abstract:
【Objective】Fertilization greatly influences soil structure and nutrients accumulation in soil aggregates. However, it is still unclear how aggregate-associated potassium (K) changes in distribution in red soil. Therefore, effects of long-term fertilization on aggregate composition and fractions of K therein in red soil were investigated based on a long-term fertilization field experiment in the subtropical area of China, in an attempt to provide certain theoretical basis for amelioration of red soil and improvement of K fertilization efficiency in that region. 【Method】 From the long-term fertilization experiment at Qiyang County of Hunan Province, China (since 1990), five treatments were selected, including CK (no fertilizer), NP (application of chemical nitrogen and phosphorus in combination), NPK (application of NP and potassium in combination), NPKM (application of NPK plus pig manure), and NPKS (application of NPK plus return of half of the straw harvested). Undisturbed soil samples were collected separately from the 0~20 cm layers of the five treatment plots in a 26 year-old (1990—2016) field of the experiment after the crop of corn was harvested, for fractionation of soil aggregates and analysis of total K (TK), non-exchangeable K (NEK) and exchangeable K (EK) therein, Then relationships of the K in the aggregates of different fractions with crop K uptake were explored. 【Results】 Results show: (1) Among the treatments, Treatment NPKM was the highest in proportion of aggregates of >2 mm, 1~2 mm and 0.5~1 mm in particle size, but the lowest in proportion of aggregates of 0.053~0.25 mm and <0.053 mm. However, Treatment NPKS did not affect proportions of aggregates of >2 mm, 1~2 mm and 0.5~1 mm. (2) Compared with Treatment NPK, Treatment NPKM was 24.37%~49.04% and 82.02%~176.3%, higher respectively in NEK and EK content in soil aggregates. The contribution rate of the fraction (>0.5 mm) of aggregates to the bulk soil (CRAB) in TK, EK, and NEK increased by 6.25%~31.97%, 5.72%~43.16% and 6.33%~41.98%, respectively, while that of the fraction (<0.25 mm) decreased by 14.37%~21.44%, 17.04%~33.66% and 34.40%~43.84%, respectively in Treatment NPKM. (3) No significant difference was observed between Treatment NPKS and Treatment NPK in EK and NEK content in aggregates of the same fraction and in contribution rate of the EK and NEK in each fraction of aggregates to the total K in CRAB. And (4) Linear regression analysis shows that when the contribution rate of the fractions (>0.25 mm) of aggregates increased by 1%, K uptake of the crop increased by 9.92~11.89 kg hm-2.【Conclusion】 Long-term application of chemical NPK fertilizers and pig manure in combination may significantly improve formation of soil aggregates in upland red soil and hence increases contribution rate of the aggregates to the bulk soil in K and consequently crop uptake of K.
Key words:  Soil potassium  Aggregate  Red soil  Long-term experiment  Pig manure