引用本文:白如霞,刘 海,王玉书,黄建国.四川省凉山州紫茎泽兰的重金属含量及其肥用安全性评价[J].土壤学报,2018,55(2):432-442.
BAI Ruxia,LIU Hai,WANG Yushu,HUANG Jianguo.Heavy Metal Contents in Eupatorium Adenophorum in Liangshan of Sichuan, and Safeness of Using the Plant as Organic Manure[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(2):432-442
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四川省凉山州紫茎泽兰的重金属含量及其肥用安全性评价
白如霞, 刘 海, 王玉书, 黄建国
西南大学资源环境学院
摘要:
在中国西南地区,紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adenophorum )大规模侵入农田、森林和草场,造成了巨大的经济损失和严重的生态灾难,是我国危害最严重的入侵植物,防除与资源化利用相结合是控制其蔓延的重要途径之一。经过生物堆肥腐熟后,紫茎泽兰的繁殖器官死亡,抑制植物、动物和微生物生长繁殖的有毒化感物质降解,重金属含量成为紫茎泽兰能否作为有机肥的关键性问题。选择四川省凉山州典型矿区、农林和交通用地,采集42个紫茎泽兰群落的土壤、植株、邻近植物和就地腐熟生产的紫茎泽兰有机肥,测定重金属含量,并对其肥用安全性进行评价。结果表明,土壤和紫茎泽兰重金属含量的变幅较大,土壤全砷(As)、二乙基三胺五乙酸(DTPA)/盐酸提取态铅(Pb)和镉(Cd)、碳酸氢钠提取态As与紫茎泽兰的重金属含量均呈显著正相关,相关系数依次为0.528、0.337 6、0.761 2和0.313 7(n=38~42, p<0.05)。在紫茎泽兰体内,茎的重金属含量最低,根系含量最高的重金属是铬(Cr)和As,叶片含量最高的则为Pb、Cd和汞(Hg)。与23种邻近植物相比,紫茎泽兰的重金属含量和富集系数低于它们中的绝大多数,其平均值和最大值也显著低于或相似于邻近植物。说明在自然条件下,紫茎泽兰吸收重金属类似普通植物,无特别的偏嗜性,不支持紫茎泽兰富集重金属的观点。紫茎泽兰有机肥各重金属含量均显著低于《有机肥国家标准》(NY525-2012)。因此,在紫茎泽兰泛滥成灾的四川省凉山州,就地腐熟紫茎泽兰做肥用不具有重金属安全风险,且无不同区域之间的重金属迁移,产生土壤污染的风险极小,值得推广应用。
关键词:  紫茎泽兰  重金属  有机肥  安全性  就地腐熟
DOI:10.11766/trxb201710240432
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2013CB127405)和四川省烟草公司科技项目(201551340027159)资助
Heavy Metal Contents in Eupatorium Adenophorum in Liangshan of Sichuan, and Safeness of Using the Plant as Organic Manure
BAI Ruxia, LIU Hai, WANG Yushu, HUANG Jianguo
College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University
Abstract:
【Objective】Eupatorium adenophorum, an alien perennial plant of Compositae, native of Central America invaded China extensively via Myanmar in the 1940s. The invasive plant is now widespread in farmlands, forests, and pastures in tropical and subtropical areas of Southwest China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Sichuan and Tibet, covering as high as about 20% of the total land in certain regions and causing enormous economic loss and serious ecological calamities, because of its strong ability to adapt various environments. Therefore, E. adenophorum is considered to be the most harmful invasive plant in this country. To control overspreading of the invasive plant, prevention in combination with utilization could be one of the most economical and effective ways. It is necessary to point out that E. adenophorum is no good to be used as pulp, building materials, fuel, and animal food because this plant is short of fiber, weak in rupture strength, and low in combustion value, and contains chemicals noxious to animals. However, this harmful plant is rich in organic matter and mineral nutrient, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and microelements. Bio-composting of the plant through inoculation of certain specific microbes can kill the reproductive organs of the plant and decompose the chemicals contained in E. adenophorum noxious to animals, microbes, and other plants. Its content of heavy metals is the critical issue for the plant to be used as source of organic manure. 【Method】Samples of E. adenophorum plants, soils, neighboring plants and in-situ bio-composted E. adenophorum plants were collected from 42 E. adenophorum colonies in lands of mining, agriculture, forestry and transportation typical of Liangshan, Sichuan for analysis of contents of Pb, Cd and Cr using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and contents of Hg and As using an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer in order to evaluate safeness of utilizing E. adenophorum as source of organic manure. 【Result】Results show that heavy metals in the plants varied sharply, exhibiting a sequence of Cr (x ̅=14.17 mg kg-1) > Pb (x ̅=4.55 mg kg-1) > Cd ( x ̅=1.47mg kg-1) > As (x ̅=0.167 mg kg-1) > Hg (x ̅=0.021 mg kg-1), and they did too in the soils, with variation coefficient of Hg, Pb, Cr, Cd and As (%) being 99.99, 305.9, 118.7, 266.8 and 51.74 in the soils, and 58.27, 87.75, 121.2, 87.75 and 71.87 in the plants, respectively, which suggests that absorption of heavy metals by E. adenophorum plants is subject to soil environment. Contents of heavy metals in E. adenophorum plants are positively related to total As, DTPA/HCl extractable Pb, DTPA/HCl extractable Cd, and NaHCO3 extractable As in the soils, with correlation coefficient being 0.528, 0.337 6, 0.761 2 and 0.313 7 (n=38~42), respectively. Among the organs of the plant, stem is the lowest in heavy metal content, root the highest in Cr and As content and leaf the highest in Pb, Cd and Hg content. In the plant Cr and As is not so movable as Pb, Cd and Hg, which move easily from roots to leaves. Compared to most of the 12 plants growing near the E. adenophorum colonies, E. adenophorum plants were lower or similar in heavy metal content, accumulation coefficient and mean and maximum content, which indicates that in the nature E. adenophorum behaves similarly like common plants and does not have any special preference in nutrient or heavy metal absorption and doesn’t support the conclusion drawn by scientists in the past that E. adenophorum is a heavy metal accumulator. Furthermore, heavy metals in the composted E. adenophorum, stems and leaves, were obviously lower than the criteria set in the National Standard for Organic Manure (NY525-2012). 【Conclusion】 E. adenophorum is not a heavy metal accumulator. In E. adenophorum infested areas, the utilization of in-situ composted E. adenophorum plants as organic manure does not pose any heavy metal toxication risk and the risk of translocation of heavy metals between regions and generation of siol pollution is very limited. So this technique is worth extrapolating.
Key words:  Eupatorium adenophorum  Heavy metals  Organic manure  Safeness  Composting in situ