引用本文:陈卫平,谢 天,李笑诺,王若丹.中国土壤污染防治技术体系建设思考[J].土壤学报,2018,55(3):557-568. DOI:10.11766/trxb201711300488
CHEN Weiping,XIE Tian,LI Xiaonuo,WANG Ruodan.Thinking of Construction of Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Technology System in China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(3):557-568. DOI:10.11766/trxb201711300488
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中国土壤污染防治技术体系建设思考
陈卫平1, 谢 天1, 李笑诺1, 王若丹2
1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室;2.陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院
摘要:
长期以来,中国土壤资源面临着过度开发、严峻的环境问题和巨大的发展压力,土壤污染的负面影响日益凸显,已经严重影响到土壤的生态功能、人体健康和土地可持续利用。2016年出台的《土壤污染防治行动计划》(简称“土十条”)体现了党中央国务院对土壤保护的高度重视,从顶层设计的战略角度对更好地推进中国土壤污染防治工作作了系统部署。为探索能快速、有效改善土壤环境质量、保障农用地生产安全和人居环境安全的土壤污染防治新模式,本文紧密围绕“土十条”的总体思路和核心理念,立足中国基本国情,通过纲领性文件的深入解读,剖析中国土壤污染防治体系的五大指导思想和五大基本原则,系统构建不同土地用途的土壤污染防治体系。通过对中国土壤污染防治建设主题、建设目标和支撑体系的深入解读,指出农用地土壤污染防治技术体系应涵盖预防技术、监管技术、修复与安全利用技术等四个方面,建设用地土壤污染防治技术体系应涵盖污染预防、环境调查、风险评估、治理修复、全过程监管和可持续再利用等六个方面。中国土壤污染防治体系以法律体系研究为主,忽视了技术体系和管理体系的系统研究。以“土十条”为思想指导,一套系统有效的土壤污染防治体系应:(1)从“治”的角度对污染土壤开展治理修复和风险管控;(2)从“防”的角度预防新增污染和现存污染的迁移扩散,重视对污染源头的严格监管;(3)形成以融资机制、公众参与等保障机制配套支撑的土壤污染全过程防治体系;(4)在摸清土壤污染状况的基础上,突出土地功能的个性差异,建设用地以人居环境安全和土地可持续利用为目的,农用地以保障农产品质量安全和人体健康为目的。
关键词:  土壤污染防治体系  土壤污染防治行动计划  农用地  建设用地
基金项目:环境保护部土壤环境管理司项目资助
Thinking of Construction of Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Technology System in China
CHEN Weiping1, XIE Tian1, LI Xiaonuo1, WANG Ruodan2
1.State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University
Abstract:
For long the soil resources of China have been confronted with over-exploitation, severe pollution and ever-increasing development pressures. The adverse impacts of soil pollution are subtle and escalating slowly, but already to such an extent that they have gravely affected human health, and sustainable utilization and fundamental ecological functions of the soil in modulating biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, supporting plant growth, and sustaining healthy human habitation. The promulgation of the "Action Plan for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control" in 2016 reflects great attention the Chinese government pays to the issue of soil protection. The plan laid down a systematic arrangement from the strategic point designed at the summit level to further promote development of soil pollution prevention and control project in China. To rapidly and effectively improve the soil environment, and guarantee safety of the agricultural production as well as human living habitats, centered around the general course and the core concepts of the plan, the paper has brought forth five guiding ideas and five basic principles for construction of a China-specific soil pollution prevention and control system. New modes of soil pollution prevention and control were explored through in-depth interpretation of the programmatic document and construction of land-use specific soil pollution prevention and control systems. The paper elaborated the theme, targets and support system of the conceptual framework of soil pollution prevention and control, and pointed out that the soil pollution prevention and control technology system should encompass prevention technology, monitoring technology, remediation technology and technology for safe exploitation of farmland resources, as well as the following aspects, pollution prevention and control, environment investigation, risk assessment, management and remediation, end-to-end monitoring and sustainable utilization. It could be concluded that the studies on soil pollution prevention and control system in China were centered mainly on studies of the legal system, neglecting system research on technical system and management system. Guided by the core idea of the “Action Plan for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control ", a systematic and effective soil pollution prevention and control system should: (1) unfold management, remediation and risk control of contaminated soil from the perspective of "Harnessing"; (2) prevent emerging of new pollution and migration and diffusion of existing pollution and enforce rigid supervision of pollution sources from the perspective of "prevention"; (3) form an end-to-end soil pollution prevention and control system supported by financing mechanism, public participation and other accessorial mechanisms; and (4) pay attention to uniqueness of each tract of land individually in function on the basis of the clear knowledge of status of soil pollution, e.g. soil pollution prevention and control is aimed at a healthy inhabitant environment and sustainable land use for construction land, and at ensuring quality of agricultural produce and human health for farmlands.
Key words:  Soil pollution prevention and control system  Action Plan for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control  Farmland  Construction land