引用本文:杨 析,邵明安,李同川,贾玉华,贾小旭,黄来明.黄土高原北部日本弓背蚁巢穴结构特征及其影响因素[J].土壤学报,2018,55(4):868-878. DOI:10.11766/trxb201711270565
YANG Xi,SHAO Ming’an,LI Tongchuan,JIA Yuhua,JIA Xiaoxu,HUANG Laiming.Structure Characteristics of Camponotus Japonicus Nests in Northern Part of Loess Plateau and Influencing Factors[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(4):868-878. DOI:10.11766/trxb201711270565
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 1814次   下载 1738 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
黄土高原北部日本弓背蚁巢穴结构特征及其影响因素
杨 析1, 邵明安1, 李同川2, 贾玉华3, 贾小旭2, 黄来明2
1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院;2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所;3.沈阳农业大学水利学院
摘要:
黄土高原大量的植被恢复为地栖性土壤动物提供了合适的栖息地和充足的食物,土壤动物的筑巢活动可提高土壤大孔隙的数量。以黄土高原北部神木县六道沟小流域的日本弓背蚁为研究对象,通过石膏浇筑法研究了日本弓背蚁巢穴结构特征,对比了日本弓背蚁(Camponotus japonicus)和针毛收获蚁(Messor aciculatus)成熟巢穴结构的异同,分析了土壤质地、土壤含水量和土壤容重对日本弓背蚁巢穴结构的影响。结果表明:日本弓背蚁的巢穴结构由通道和巢室组合而成,通道为圆柱形,其直径大小为4.1~6.6 mm,巢室的形状为倒置漏斗形或立体椭圆形,巢室横截面面积为606~2 117 mm2;日本弓背蚁和针毛收获蚁巢穴在通道直径、巢室形状和横截面积、巢穴深度等方面有较大的差异;巢穴体积随着蚂蚁群落规模的增加而增加;日本弓背蚁群落在壤土和壤砂土中均有广泛分布,适宜其生存和繁殖的土壤含水量在60~200 g kg-1之间,在土壤颗粒较大的干燥砂土中并不常见;土壤容重越大,蚂蚁巢穴的结构越简单,其通道的长度、分支、节点和巢穴总体积较小。但是,通道直径主要与蚂蚁的体型相关,不受土壤质地、含水量和容重的影响。本研究从小尺度分析了黄土高原植被恢复通过土栖性蚂蚁对土壤结构产生的间接影响,拓宽了黄土高原北部土壤大孔隙的研究范围。
关键词:  蚂蚁  土壤含水量  土壤质地  土壤容重  巢穴结构
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41571130081,41571221,41390463)资助
Structure Characteristics of Camponotus Japonicus Nests in Northern Part of Loess Plateau and Influencing Factors
YANG Xi1, SHAO Ming’an1, LI Tongchuan2, JIA Yuhua3, JIA Xiaoxu2, HUANG Laiming2
1.College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University;2.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University
Abstract:
【Objective】Large-scaled restoration of vegetation in the northern part of the Loess Plateau has promoted development of land-dwelling animals or soil animals in that region by providing abundant food and suitable habitats. Nesting activities of soil animals markedly increase the amount of soil macropores, which in turn significantly affect the transformation, storage and utilization of precipitation. The pores formed by soil animals and plant roots are often tubular and have smooth inner walls good in water stability, and hence significantly contribute to the migration of soil moisture. In recent years, quite a number of studies have been reported investigating macropores formed in the soil by plant roots in the Loess Plateau, but little has dealing with macropores formed by soil animals in the region. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate characteristics of ant nests (Camponotus japonicus) and identify factors controlling their nest structure in the Liudaogou Catchment. 【Method】In this paper, Camponotus japonicus in the Liudaogou Catchment, north of the Loess Plateau was selected as the research object. Subterranean nests of the ants and the native Messor aciculatus were filled with thin mush of orthodontic plaster in the field to produce 3D images of the ant nests for comparison to check their similarities and differences. Besides, a total of 21 iron buckets (20 cm in diameter x 20 cm in height) packed with loam were used to raise worker ants in so as to explore relationship between volume of the nest and number of the worker ants. Moreover, worker ants were introduced into plastic buckets (30 cm diameter x 40 cm height) packed with sand to assess effects of soil moisture content and soil bulk density on structure of the Camponotus japonicus nests. 【Result】The Camponotus japonicus nests in the field stretched out vertically as tunnels and horizontally as a series of planular chambers linked with the tunnels. The nest tunnels ranged from 4.1 to 6.6 mm in diameter and went as deep as 63 cm down into the soil. The cross-sectional area of the planular chambers ranged from 606 to 2 117 mm2. The nests had 1 to 3 entrances each. The ant nests in the lab did not vary much in diameter of the tunnel, cross-sectional area of the chamber, and number of the entrances from those in the field. Limited by the volume of the PVC cylinder, the nests went only 30 cm deep, with the channels winding downward without lateral branches developed. Significant differences were observed between the nests of Camponotus japonicus and Messor aciculatus in diameter of the channel, shape and cross-sectional area of the chamber, and depth of the nest. As the ants increased in colony size, the nests gradually increased in size. The Camponotus japonicus community can survive in the soil with moisture content ranging from 60 to 200 g kg-1. In a proper range of soil moisture, soil texture did not affect much structure of the Camponotus japonicus nests. However, in the sand soils low in moisture content, ant nests were rarely found. Soil bulk density also greatly affected structure of the ant nests, reducing length of the nest, number of the branches, number of the node and total volume of the ant nest when it got heavier. However, tunnel of the nest did not vary much in diameter with soil moisture contents or soil textures. Diameter of the tunnels mainly depends on body size of the ants. 【Conclusion】The research elucidated on a small scale the characteristics of the soil-dwelling ants (Camponotus japonicus) and their affecting factors. All the findings may broaden the scope of the study on soil macropores in the northern part of the Loess Plateau. Such knowledge could in turn be used to develop strategies for enhancing the soil water storage capacity and restoration of sustainable vegetation in the arid region of the Loess Plateau.
Key words:  Ant  Soil moisture content  Soil texture  Soil bulk density  Nest structure