引用本文:李丹萍,刘敦一,张白鸽,杨 敏,李文丽,石孝均,陈新平,张跃强.不同镁肥在中国南方三种缺镁土壤中的迁移和淋洗特征[J].土壤学报,2018,55(6):1513-1524.
LI Danping,LIU Dunyi,ZHANG Baige,YANG Min,LI Wenli,SHI Xiaojun,CHEN Xinping,ZHANG Yueqiang.Movement and Leaching of Magnesium Fertilizers in Three Types of Magnesium-deficient Soils in South China Relative to Fertilizer Type[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(6):1513-1524
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不同镁肥在中国南方三种缺镁土壤中的迁移和淋洗特征
李丹萍,刘敦一,张白鸽,杨 敏,李文丽,石孝均,陈新平,张跃强
西南大学资源环境学院,西南大学资源环境学院,广东省农业科学院蔬菜研究所,西南大学资源环境学院,西南大学资源环境学院,西南大学资源环境学院,西南大学资源环境学院,西南大学资源环境学院
摘要:
镁淋溶是导致南方土壤缺镁的关键因素之一。通过室内土柱模拟实验探究了四种镁肥(氧化镁、改性硫酸镁、钙镁磷肥和硫酸钾镁)在中国南方三种酸性缺镁土壤(黄壤、紫色土、红壤)中的有效性、迁移和淋洗特征以及土壤对镁素的固持,以期为南方缺镁土壤科学施用镁肥提供依据。结果表明,施用镁肥(折合MgO 100 mg·kg-1 )后,三种土壤施镁土层(0~15 cm)交换性镁含量提高了2倍~15倍。氧化镁、改性硫酸镁和硫酸钾镁在三种土壤中均表现出较强的迁移能力,经过60 d淋洗(模拟降雨量1 000 mm),未施用镁肥土层(15~50 cm)中有效镁含量均较对照增加17.9~105.4 mg·kg-1 。黄壤上不同镁肥处理镁累积淋失量在104.9~243.8 kg·hm-2 ,与紫色土接近,但较红壤高2倍~3倍。实验结束后,黄壤和紫色土上施用氧化镁、改性硫酸镁和硫酸钾镁的淋失率均超过三分之一,而红壤中均低于7%;施用钙镁磷肥增加了土壤对镁的固持,减缓了镁向下淋洗,淋失率在三种土壤中均为负值。综合四种镁肥在土壤中的有效性、土壤对镁素的固持、镁在土壤中的淋洗特征以及土壤酸化阻控,钙镁磷肥在三种酸性缺镁土壤中施用效果均较好。
关键词:  镁肥种类  酸性土壤  迁移  淋失  固持  钙镁磷肥
DOI:10.11766/trxb201802130616
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200104)、国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD06B04)及国际镁营养研究所基金资助
Movement and Leaching of Magnesium Fertilizers in Three Types of Magnesium-deficient Soils in South China Relative to Fertilizer Type
LI Danping,LIU Dunyi,ZHANG Baige,YANG Min,LI Wenli,SHI Xiaojun,CHEN Xinping and ZHANG Yueqiang
College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University,College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University,Vegetable Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences,College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University,College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University,College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University,College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University,College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University
Abstract:
【Objective】Magnesium (Mg) is a mineral nutrient essential to plant growth. It is the central atom of chlorophyll, and also an activator of various enzymes, involved in various metabolic reactions in plants. Magnesium deficiency can affect normal growth and yield quality of the crops involved. Nevertheless it has become more and more a common problem in the soil-crop systems in South China, in the last decades, where though large volumes of chemical fertilizers are applied, little magnesium fertilizers are, and the removal of magnesium by crop and soil Mg leaching is high. Mg leaching in the soil is one of the primary factors leading to Mg deficiency in the soil and crops in the tropical and subtropical regions of China with high temperature and plentiful rainfall. To solve the problem, application of magnesium fertilizer has become an important strategy. Therefore, it is of great importance to explore characteristics of Mg movement and leaching in Mg deficient soils as affected by Mg fertilizer application for rationalizing application of Mg fertilizers.【Method】An indoor soil column simulation experiment was conducted to study movement and leaching of Mg in the three types of acid Mg-deficient soils (red soil, yellow soil and purple soil common in South China), applied with magnesium oxide (MgO), improved magnesium sulfate (Improved MgSO4, pH>8), calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (CaMgP) and potassium sulphate magnesium (KMgS), separately, and consequently efficiency of the fertilizers. This study is expected to be able to provide certain technical support for rationalization of the application of Mg fertilizers in the soils typical of South China. 【Result】Results show that soil exchangeable Mg increased by 2~15 folds in all the three types of soils (0~15 cm) after application of the Mg fertilizers at a rate of MgO 100 mg·kg-1 . Among the four types of Mg fertilizers, Improved MgSO4 was the highest in the effect and followed by CaMgP, MgO and KMgS, sequently. After 60-days of leaching with simulated rainfall amounting to 1000 mm, strong downwards movements of soil Mg in the soils applied with MgO, improved MgSO4 or KMgS fertilizer were observed. Compared with the soils with no Mg applied (CKs), the soils applied with Mg fertilizer had soil exchangeable Mg increased in concentration significantly or by a range of 17.9~105.4 mg·kg-1 in the 15~50 cm soil layer as a result of leaching of Mg from the top layer (0~15 cm). The effect was significant in the yellow soil and red soil applied with CaMgP, but not in the purple soil. In general, Mg concentration in leachate displayed a trend, increasing first and then decreasing, which could be well described with a quadratic equation. Accordingly, the amount of leached Mg from the soils under different Mg treatments could be well matched by exponential equations. The accumulated Mg leaching from the yellow soil varied in the range of 104.9~243.8 kg·hm-2 , which was close to that from the purple soil, and 2~3 times higher than that from the red soil. Compared with CKs, application of MgO, improved MgSO4 or KMgS fertilizer significantly increased the amount of Mg leaching in the yellow soil and purple soil, while application of CaMgP fertilizer did reversely. After the leaching experiment, the leaching rates of the MgO, improved MgSO4 and KMgS fertilizers applied in the yellow soil and purple soil were all higher than one-third, whereas lower than 7% in the red soil. On the other side, application of CaMgP enhanced retention of Mg in the soils, and slowed down the downwards movement of Mg, thus reducing Mg leaching during the leaching experiment period as compared with CK. 【Conclusion】By considering integratedly the effects of the four types of magnesium fertilizers on availability, retention and leaching of Mg in the soil and retardation of soil acidification, CaMgP fertilizer is preferred for all the three types of acid soils typical of South China, although its biological availability needs to be studied further.
Key words:  Types of magnesium fertilizer  Acid soil  Movement  Leaching  Retention  Calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (CaMgP)