引用本文:李俊颖,李新举,吴克宁,宋 文,张小丹.济宁引黄复垦区不同年限土壤养分变化预测[J].土壤学报,2018,55(6):1358-1366.
LI Junying,LI Xinju,WU Kening,SONG Wen,ZHANG Xiaodan.Prediction of Variation of Soil Nutrient Status in Reclaimed Subsidence-damaged Farmlands by Filling with Yellow River Sediment Different in Reclamation History in Jining City[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(6):1358-1366
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济宁引黄复垦区不同年限土壤养分变化预测
李俊颖,李新举,吴克宁,宋 文,张小丹
中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院,山东农业大学资源与环境学院,中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院,中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院,中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院
摘要:
在济宁市梁山县选择引黄充填复垦典型复垦地块,并选择一块具有相同耕作方式的未塌陷地作为参照,通过分析复垦样地多年来的观测数据,构建不同土壤养分指标与年限间的回归方程,研究同一复垦方式不同复垦年限的土壤养分变化,并对耕层土壤养分恢复时间进行预测。结果表明:(1)随着复垦年限的增加,土壤有机质、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾含量均呈增加的趋势,至复垦5 a时,土壤有机质、碱解氮、速效钾基本趋近于对照地块含量,有效磷含量虽总体呈上升趋势,但复垦5 a后0~20 cm、20~40 cm、40~60 cm土壤有效磷含量分别为6.34、6.21、5.93 mg?kg-1,仅达到对照地块的60%;(2)预测引黄充填复垦耕层土壤有机质、碱解氮和速效钾含量在5~6 a后可恢复至对照耕地水平,复垦地块耕层土壤有效磷含量如要恢复至对照耕地水平需要15 a。引黄充填复垦地块耕层土壤的供磷能力明显较弱,可通过改善农艺措施和后期合理增施磷肥或有机肥料来提升土壤质量。
关键词:  采煤塌陷区  引黄充填复垦  复垦年限  土壤养分  有效磷
DOI:10.11766/trxb201802250023
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41771324)资助
Prediction of Variation of Soil Nutrient Status in Reclaimed Subsidence-damaged Farmlands by Filling with Yellow River Sediment Different in Reclamation History in Jining City
LI Junying,LI Xinju,WU Kening,SONG Wen and ZHANG Xiaodan
School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences,College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University,School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences,School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences,School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences
Abstract:
【Objective】Jining is an important energy base in China, thanks to its rich natural resources, like coal. However, decades of mining has caused land subsidence, which has become a protruding environmental problem, destructing large areas of farmlands in the region. Filling with Yellow River sediment has come up as a new method to solve the problem in recent years. The new method can not only help alleviate the hazard of sediment blocking the river course of the Yellow river, but also make full use of the endless filling materials for subsidence reclamation in the eastern plain mining area without any concern about the possibility of secondary pollution. At present, the study on subsidence reclamation using Yellow River sediment as filling is mainly focused on feasibility and cost of the technology. So far no comprehensive and systematic research has been done on reclaiming subsided farmlands with sediment diverted from the Yellow River. 【Method】 In this study, a typical tract of farmland reclaimed by filling with sediment diverted from the Yellow River in Liangshan County, Jining was selected as research object , and another tract of unaffected farmland was cited as CK, both following the same tillage procedure. For years observatory data were collected and analyzed for construction of a regression equation for relationships of various soil nutrient indices and reclamation history, or number of years the reclaimed farmland had been cultivated, and further for variation of soil fertility with reclamation history. On such a basis, this study attempted to predict how long soil fertility of the reclaimed farmland will recover. 【Result】 Results show that with cultivation of the reclaimed farmland going on, soil organic matter, alkalyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus and readily available potassium all exhibited rising trends. The first three indices reached also as high as their corresponding ones in CK in the fifth year, but the last one, though on a rising trend, was only 60% of that in CK. Obviously, it takes only 5 or 6 years for the reclaimed farmland to build up as much as soil organic matter, alkalyzable nitrogen, and readily available potassium as CK has, whereas it may take as long as 15 years for the farmland to accumulate the same amount of effective phosphorus as CK has. The reclaimed farmland is relatively low in available phosphorus, and productivity, and has to be cultivated for quite a long time before it gets recovered in soil fertility. The problem can be solved through modification of the irrigation pattern, rationalization of the cropping system and adoption of split application of P fertilizer, that is, “More frequent application, each at a limited rate” to ensure crop growth and build-up of soil fertility. With cultivation of the reclaimed farmland going on and on, soil organic matter, alkalyzable nitrogen and available potassium in the soil will build up to the same level as in CK. So they are not the limiting factors of the agricultural production in the reclaimed land. But great attention should be paid to building up of soil nutrients in the process of reclamation. 【Conclusion】Therefore, the paper recommends building up and regulating soil nutrients, and reducing nutrient loss, through increasing application of organic manure, planting green manure crops, returning straw to soil, and regulating hydrothermal conditions, etc. to improve soil quality and ensure crop quality. Once the problem of diverting Yellow River water with sediment through a long distance is successfully solved, the technology of reclaiming of subsided farmlands by filling with Yellow River sediment can be popularized for application in coal mining areas alongside the Yellow River in the future.
Key words:  Coal mining subsidence area  Reclamation of subsidence land by filling with Yellow River sediment  Years of cultivation after reclamation  Soil nutrient  Available phosphorus