引用本文:李 博,卢 瑛,熊正琴.施用生物质炭对集约化菜地土壤肥力质量的影响[J].土壤学报,2018,55(6):1345-1357.
LI Bo,LU Ying,XIONG Zhengqin.Effects of Biochar on Soil Fertility Quality in Intensive Vegetable Field[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(6):1345-1357
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施用生物质炭对集约化菜地土壤肥力质量的影响
李 博,卢 瑛,熊正琴
华南农业大学资源环境学院,华南农业大学资源环境学院,南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院,江苏省低碳农业和温室气体减排重点实验室
摘要:
以南京郊区集约化蔬菜地为研究对象,设置不同水平生物质炭(0、20和40 t hm-2生物质炭)与氮肥(不施肥与常规施肥)配施,研究生物质炭施入菜地土壤两年半(九季蔬菜)后对菜地土壤肥力质量的影响。结果表明:氮肥的施用显著增加菜地土壤全氮(TN)、电导率(EC)、容重(BD)和阳离子交换量(CEC),分别增加了9.4%~18.1%、172.4%~241.1%、5.6%~7.6%和10.4%~15.0%,并且降低了0.68~1.1个单位的土壤pH(p<0.05);生物质炭的施用显著增加了菜地土壤TN、土壤有机碳(SOC)含量和CEC,分别增加了1.7%~10.0%、3.6%~48.3%和8.1%~37.1%,并且显著降低了土壤EC和BD。生物质炭的施用在不施用氮肥的菜地土壤中提高了0.11~0.23个单位的土壤pH(p<0.05),而在施用氮肥的处理中,生物质炭的施用降低了0.19~0.23个单位的土壤pH(p<0.05)。生物质炭施用增加了菜地表层土壤(0~20 cm)的无机氮含量,但是显著降低了其他土层的无机氮含量。生物质炭的施用显著降低了菜地土壤剖面(0~100 cm)的铵态氮(NH4+-N)的累积量(p<0.05),而对菜地土壤剖面硝态氮(NO3--N)累积量无显著影响。此外,生物质炭的施用能够使蔬菜产量与氮肥偏生产力分别提高7.7%~43.8%和21.8%~43.8%(p<0.01),并提高菜地土壤肥力质量的综合得分。本研究中,常规施肥配施40 t hm-2生物质炭处理能够更有效地缓解由于长期大量施肥造成的菜地土壤SOC分解以及硝态氮大量淋洗的情况,提高土壤肥力质量,推荐为最佳处理。
关键词:  集约化菜地  生物质炭  土壤肥力质量  硝态氮淋洗  主成分分析
DOI:10.11766/trxb201802250031
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41471192)和国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD11B01)资助
Effects of Biochar on Soil Fertility Quality in Intensive Vegetable Field
LI Bo,LU Ying and XIONG Zhengqin
College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University,College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Agriculture and GHGs Mitigation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University
Abstract:
【Objective】This study was carried out to investigate effects of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer plus biochar varying in rate on soil physico-chemical properties for 30 months (9 consecutive vegetable crops) in an intensive vegetable production system. 【Method】 During the observation period from April, 2012 to October, 2014, nine crops of vegetable were successfully planted, including Amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.), Water spinach ( Ipomoea aquatic Forssk.), Cilantro ( Coriandrum sativum L.), Baby bok choy ( Brassica chinensis L.) and Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.). The experiment was designed to have three biochar amendment rates, namely, B0 (without biochar), B1 (20 t hm-2) and B2 (40 t hm-2) and two N application rates, namely, N0 (No N applied) and Nc (1 233 kg hm-2 a-1, the same as in conventional vegetable fields and a typical case of N overdose), thus forming six treatments. In the experiment, compound fertilizer of (N):(P2O5):(K2O) being 15:15:15 in ratio was applied at 313 kg hm-2 to Amaranth and Cilantro, 600 kg hm-2 to Water spinach and 250 kg hm-2 to Baby bok choy and Spinach as the local farmers usually do. Soil samples were collected from the 0~20 cm, 20~40 cm, 40~60 cm, 60~80 cm and 80~100 cm soil layers of every treatment for in-lab analysis at the end of the experiment or right after the harvest of the last vegetable crop on October 30, 2014. 【Result】 Comparisons between the treatments with and without N show that N application significantly increased soil total nitrogen (TN), soil electronic conductivity (EC), bulk density and cation exchange capacity (CEC) by 9.4%~18.1%, 172.4%~241.1%, 5.6%~7.6% and 10.4%~15.0%, respectively, while significantly decreased soil pH by 0.68~1.10; Although two-way ANOVA shows that N application significantly increased the content of soil organic carbon (SOC) by 9.8%~23.4% in all the Nc treatments, except treatment NcB0 where the content the content of SOC decreased by 17.3%, which indicates that biochar helps SOC accumulation in the soil. Besides, amendment of biochar significantly increased soil TN, SOC and CEC by 1.7%~10.0%, 3.6%~48.3% and 8.1%~37.1%, respectively, while significantly decreasing soil EC and bulk density. Meanwhile, biochar significantly increased soil pH in the three N0 treatments by 0.11~0.23, while decreasing soil pH by 0.19~0.23 in the Nc treatments. In addition, interactive effects between N application and biochar amendment on soil TN, SOC and EC were significant according to the two-way ANOVA analysis. Soil NH4+-N and NO3--N content in the experiment varied in the range of 6.6~59.3 mg kg-1 and 23.8~51.3 mg kg-1, respectively. N application significantly increased NH4+-N and NO3--N concentrations in all soil layers of the vegetable soil profiles. They varied with soil depth, and mineral N concentration, too, in a similar trend, that is, declining first and then rising with soil depth in the soil profile; Meanwhile, application of biochar significantly decreased NH4+-N concentration in the 20~40 cm、60~80 cm and 80~100 cm soil layers by 4.9%~47.9 %, while increasing NH4+-N concentration in the 0~20 cm soil layer; Meanwhile, it also significantly increased NO3--N concentration in the top soil layer by 2.4%~29.8% while did reversely in all the deeper soil layers. Moreover, biochar amendment significantly increased the vegetable yield and PFPN (N partial factor productivity) by 7.7%~43.8% and 21.8%~43.8% (p<0.01), respectively, and a significant and positive relationship of crop yield was observed with soil TN and SOC during the experimental period (p<0.01). 【Conclusion】As biochar amendment combined with N application can improve soil fertility and reduce the NO3--N concentration in vegetable soil, the practice may serve to guarantee healthy development of the intensive vegetable production system, and the treatment of amending 40 t hm-2 biochar to application of N at the conventional rate is recommended to be an optimal treatment in this study.
Key words:  Intensive vegetable field  Biochar  Soil fertility quality  NO3--N leaching  Principal component analysis