引用本文:王丽丽,甄 庆,王 颖,孙层层,严 翔,郑纪勇.晋陕蒙矿区排土场不同改良模式下土壤养分效应研究[J].土壤学报,2018,55(6):1525-1533.
WANG Lili,ZHEN Qing,WANG Ying,SUN Cengceng,YAN Xiang,ZHENG Jiyong.Effect of Soil Amelioration on Soil Nutrients at Mining Dumps in the Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia Region[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(6):1525-1533
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晋陕蒙矿区排土场不同改良模式下土壤养分效应研究
王丽丽,甄 庆,王 颖,孙层层,严 翔,郑纪勇
中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀和旱地农业国家重点实验室,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀和旱地农业国家重点实验室,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀和旱地农业国家重点实验室,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀和旱地农业国家重点实验室,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀和旱地农业国家重点实验室,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀和旱地农业国家重点实验室
摘要:
探究晋陕蒙矿区排土场不同改良模式下土壤养分效应及差异。在内蒙古准格尔旗永利煤矿排土场,选取砒砂岩沙黄土混掺(FS)、风化煤沙黄土混掺(WC)、沙黄土(SL)三种人工熟化的新构土体,与周边以长芒草为主的原地貌土壤(OL)以及新建排土场(CK)作对比,分析3种改良模式下0~20 cm表层土壤中有机碳、全氮、硝态氮、铵态氮、有效磷的含量变化及改良效果差异,并采用加权综合法对几种土壤类型的养分质量进行综合评价。结果表明:1) 不同改良模式排土场相比新建排土场,土壤各养分含量均有显著提高,原地貌土壤在0~10 cm和10~20 cm两个土层中,有效磷含量较对照分别降低了0.36 mg·kg-1和0.9 mg·kg-1。2)重构小区中不同改良模式下土壤有机碳、有效磷、硝态氮均已超过原地貌土壤养分含量,土壤铵态氮基本达到原地貌水平,土壤全氮尚未恢复至原地貌水平。3)由5种土壤养分指标计算出的土壤质量指数在0~10 cm土层中的变化范围是0.16~0.79,在10~20 cm土层中的变化范围是0.16~0.55,几种土壤类型的土壤质量指数排序为WC>FS>SL>OL>CK。总体而言,不同改良模式土壤养分质量以风化煤掺混土体最高,其次是砒砂岩掺混土体,沙黄土高于原地貌土壤,对照质量最差。
关键词:  排土场  砒砂岩  风化煤  土壤养分  改良效果  土壤质量指数
DOI:10.11766/trxb201802000037
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504504-2)和中国科学院科技服务网络计划项目(KFJ-STS-ZDTP-012)资助
Effect of Soil Amelioration on Soil Nutrients at Mining Dumps in the Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia Region
WANG Lili,ZHEN Qing,WANG Ying,SUN Cengceng,YAN Xiang and ZHENG Jiyong
State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & Ministry of Water Resources,State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & Ministry of Water Resources,State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & Ministry of Water Resources,State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & Ministry of Water Resources,State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & Ministry of Water Resources,State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & Ministry of Water Resources
Abstract:
【Objective】The Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia region is an energy base in China, massive opencast mining activities in the region bring about a series of environmental and ecological problems. In this case, reconstruction of disturbed surface ecosystems and reclamation of dumps have become the upmost urgent tasks in eco-environment rehabilitation of the region. The soil in the region is dominated with sandy loess soil, and some feldspathic sandstone and weathered coal. Studies have shown that feldspathic sandstone can be used to improve soil properties of sandy loess, and weathered coal, too, as soil amendment. However, effects of using feldspathic sandstone and weathered coal as soil amendment to improve soil properties and fertility of reconstructed soil are rarely reported. To reconstruct the soil of the dump of the Yongli Coal Mine, this study was oriented to explore effects of different soil amelioration modes on soil nutrients in the soil of the dump so as to accumulate certain theoretical and practical experience in reclaiming deserted dumps and restoration of the ecosystems therein 【Method】In this study, three types of reconstructed and artificially aged soils, different in structure and nutrient state, i.e. FS (Feldspathic sandstone mixed with sandy loess soil), WC (Weathered coal mixed with sandy loess soil), and SL (Sandy loess soil), were selected for comparison with the soil under original landform grown mainly with Stipa bungeana (OL, Original landform soil) and a new dump (CK, Blank control). So there were 5 treatments and 3 replicates for each treatment. After three years of artificially aging through fertilization and plant cultivation, soil samples were collected from the five treatments for analysis of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and available phosphorus in the 0~20 cm surface soil. Comparison was made for differences in nutrient status and the weighted synthesis method was used to evaluate the nutrient quality of several soil types.【Result】 Results show that: 1) SOC in the reconstructed soils (FS, WC and SL) and the original landform soil (OL) was 12.2, 10.0, 5.1 and 4.9 times respectively as high as that in the new dump in the 10~20 cm layer soil. Soil total nitrogen in OL was the highest among the five treatments. TN in the 0~10 cm layer in the three reconstructed soils was about 5 times as high as that in the new dump, while TN in the 10~20 cm soil layer, about 3 times as high. Nitrate nitrogen in the 0~10 cm soil layer soil was the highest in SL, reaching up to 3.61 mg·kg-1. Ammonium nitrogen in the 0~20 cm soil layer varied randomly, showing no consistent tendency among the treatments. Available phosphorus in the 0~10 cm and 10~20 cm soil layers was 0.36 mg·kg-1 and 0.9 mg·kg-1, respectively, lower in OL than in CK. 2) Soils under three different amelioration modes were obviously higher than OL in content of soil organic carbon, available phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen, and almost as high as OL in content of soil ammonium nitrogen, but still lower than OL in content of soil total nitrogen. 3) The soil quality index in 0~10 cm soil layer was 0.16~0.79 while range from 0.16 to 0.55 in 10~20 cm soil layer, and the soil quality index among five soil types shows WC>FS>SL>OL>CK.【Conclusion】All the findings in the experiment demonstrate that the soil amelioration mode of mixing weathered coal has the highest soil nutrient quality, followed by the mode of mixing fieldspathic sandstone, and the soil nutrient quality of sandy loess soil is higher than the original landform soil, while the quality of the blank control is the worst, showing three amelioration modes all have some positive effects on soil nutrients. The findings may serve as indices for evaluating soil fertility and as theoretical basis for constructing high-efficient artificial soils, and also provide reasonable suggestions for land reclamation and ecological restoration in mine dumps.
Key words:  Mine dump  Fieldspathic sandstone  Weathered coal  Soil nutrient  Ameliorating effect  Soil quality index