引用本文:王晓婷,陈瑞蕊,井忠旺,冯有智,姚童言,林先贵.水稻和小麦根际效应及细菌群落特征的比较研究[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):443-453.
WANG Xiaoting,CHEN Ruirui,JING Zhongwang,FENG Youzhi,YAO Tongyan,LIN Xiangui.Comparative Study on Rhizosphere Effects and Bacterial Communities in the Rhizospheres of Rice and Wheat[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):443-453
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水稻和小麦根际效应及细菌群落特征的比较研究
王晓婷,陈瑞蕊,井忠旺,冯有智,姚童言,林先贵
土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所),土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所),中国科学院大学,土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所),土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所),土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
稻麦轮作是我国重要的农业生产方式,但水稻和小麦的根际效应及其对土壤功能的相对贡献仍不清楚。利用中国科学院常熟农业生态试验站典型乌栅土壤,同时分别设置种植水稻和小麦的盆栽试验,通过比较根际和非根际土壤中活性组分含量、脱氢酶活性、细菌群落多样性等指标的差异,研究植稻和植麦土壤根际效应及细菌群落特征。结果表明:水稻和小麦根际和非根际土壤的养分含量、微生物活性和细菌群落多样性以及主要细菌种类均具有显著性差异;根际土壤可溶性有机碳(DOC)、微生物生物量碳(MBC)含量和脱氢酶活性(DHA)均高于非根际土壤,而土壤可溶性有机氮(DON)含量及细菌阿尔法(Alpha)多样性均低于非根际土壤;水稻各指标根际效应(DOC:2.07%,MBC:8.61%,DHA:41.11%,DON:61.07%, Chao1指数:7.62%)均小于小麦对应指标的根际效应(DOC:3.37%,MBC:22.62%,DHA:44.48%,DON:71.43%,Chao1指数:16.59%);小麦根际和非根际细菌群落分布之间的差异显著大于水稻。以上结果表明,与旱作小麦相比,水稻根际土壤与非根际土壤的差异较小,水稻根际效应较小,有利于光合碳及土壤养分的运移,有利于土壤微生物尤其是非根际微生物的生长。这些结果从新的角度阐释了根际效应及其对稻麦轮作土壤可持续性发展的作用机制。
关键词:  稻麦轮作  根际效应  细菌群落多样性  高通量测序  主坐标分析
DOI:10.11766/trxb201806020042
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(41430859)、中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS)区域重点项目(KFJ-STS-QYZD-020)、中国科学院南京土壤研究所“一三五”计划领域前沿项目(ISSASIP1639)联合资助
Comparative Study on Rhizosphere Effects and Bacterial Communities in the Rhizospheres of Rice and Wheat
WANG Xiaoting,CHEN Ruirui,JING Zhongwang,FENG Youzhi,YAO Tongyan and LIN Xiangui
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences,State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences,State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences,State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】 In China, rice and wheat rotation is an important mode of agricultural production, composed of two subsystems i.e. flooded-cultivation and dry farming, with rice and wheat being the representative respectively. The two subsystems differ significantly in irrigation and fertilization condition and soil microbial community structure. The migration of soil active components and microbial characteristics as affected by rhizosphere effect are crucial to the formation and development of soil fertility. Bacterial communities play an essential role in biogeochemical cycles, plant nutrition and disease biocontrol. Most papers available in the literature focused mainly on rhizosphere effect, root exudates and enzyme activity in the upland soil, with little efforts on comparison between upland and paddy soils in pattern of rhizosphere effect and associated microbial community dynamics. Therefore, it is so far still unclear about rhizosphere effects of rice and wheat and their relative contributions to soil function. 【Method】 A pot experiment cultivating rice and wheat separately was conducted in gleyic-stagnic anthrosols, a typical type of soil in the Changshu Ecological Experiment Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Rhizosphere soil was separated from non-rhizosphere or bulk soil with a rhizobox system. Comparison was made between the two portions of soil in content of soil active components, dehydrogenase activity, microbial biomass carbon and bacterial community composition under the two cropping systems for analysis of differences between rice and wheat in rhizosphere effect. Principal component analysis (PCoA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed of the results of High throughput sequencing of the obtained data for analysis of soil bacterial community composition.【Result】 In both rice and wheat soils, the two portions of soil varied significantly in content of dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon and in dehydrogenase activity. Obviously they were higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, whereas dissolved organic nitrogen content and bacterial alpha diversity was significantly lower in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Proteobacteria and Bacteroides were the dominant bacteria in both rice and wheat soils, accounting for more than 40%. However, in terms of dominant genera, differences were obvious between rice and wheat as well as between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. On the whole, soil microbial community was more complex in the rhizosphere than in the non-rhizosphere soil, and higher in population in the rice soil than in the wheat soil. Principal component analysis clearly shows that sharp difference existed between the two soil systems cultivated with rice and wheat in bacterial community, and the difference between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils was significantly sharper in the wheat soil than in the rice soil. Rhizosphere effects (DOC: 2.07%; MBC: 8.61%; dehydrogenase activity: 41.11%; DON: 61.07%; and Chao1: 7.62%) in the rice soil were all lower in absolute value than their respective ones in the wheat soil (DOC: 3.37%; MBC: 22.62%; dehydrogenase activity: 44.48%; DON: 71.43%; and Chao1: 16.59%). 【Conclusion】 All the above listed findings suggest that the difference between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere was narrower in the rice soil than in the wheat soil, that is to say, the rhizosphere effect of rice is lower, facilitating transport of photosynthetic carbon and soil nutrients and favoring growth of soil microbes, especially in rhizosphere. And the findings illustrate from a new angle the rhizosphere effect and mechanism of the effect on sustainable development of the soil under the rice and wheat rotation system, and shed lights on a new perspective for improving soil fertility, especially in the soil under upland cropping systems.
Key words:  Rice-wheat rotation  Rhizosphere effect  Bacterial community diversity  High-throughput sequencing  Principal component analysis (PCoA)