引用本文:卢新哲,谷安庆,张言午,康占军,胡雪峰,褚先尧.基于环境地球化学基线的农用地重金属累积特征及其潜在生态危害风险研究[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):408-419.
LU Xinzhe,GUAnqing,ZHANG Yanwu,KANG Zhanjun,HU Xuefeng,CHU Xianyao.Sources and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal in Agricultural Soils Based on the Environmental Geochemical Baselines[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):408-419
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基于环境地球化学基线的农用地重金属累积特征及其潜在生态危害风险研究
卢新哲1, 谷安庆2, 张言午2, 康占军2, 胡雪峰1, 褚先尧2
1.上海大学环境与化学工程学院;2.浙江省地质调查院
摘要:
为探明浙江东部某市周边农用地土壤重金属累积特征及潜在生态危害风险,系统采集研究区表土样品,测定重金属元素(As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Ni、Pb、Zn)和惰性元素(Li、Eu、Sc、Sm)含量。通过元素相关性分析,筛选出合适的标准因子,按标准化方法建立了研究区土壤重金属As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Ni、Pb和Zn环境地球化学基线,获得基线值分别为11.13、0.38、57.48、43.86、0.30、21.55、51.91和132.7 mg·kg-1。在应用单因子方法评价土壤重金属污染程度基础上,以环境地球化学基线值作为标准因子,采用富集因子方法判别因受人类活动影响的重金属污染点位,并对土壤重金属累积潜在的生态环境风险进行了评价。结果表明,研究区表层土壤普遍存在不同程度的重金属污染,以轻微至轻度污染级别为主,其中Cd和As存在少量重度污染点位,比例分别为3.00%和0.19%。研究区重金属富集主要受工矿企业活动影响,浓集中心集中在金属矿山和印染企业周边,具有沿水系向低地势平原区迁移趋势。研究区范围Cd和Hg具有潜在的较高生态风险。利用GIS系统,将各样点重金属土壤污染程度、富集因子(EF)和潜在生态危害评价结果,在研究区农用地土地利用现状图斑上进行空间叠加,可实现从地理空间上的土壤重金属污染范围界定、重金属人为成因污染判别和潜在生态危害风险空间预警。
关键词:  重金属  土壤  环境地球化学基线值  富集因子  潜在生态危害风险
DOI:10.11766/trxb201804120050
分类号:
基金项目:浙江省财政基金项目(2016009)和国家自然科学基金项目(41877005)资助
Sources and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal in Agricultural Soils Based on the Environmental Geochemical Baselines
LU Xinzhe1, GUAnqing2, ZHANG Yanwu2, KANG Zhanjun2, HU Xuefeng1, CHU Xianyao2
1.School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University;2.Zhejiang Institute of Geological Survey
Abstract:
【Objective】To study the characteristics and risk of heavy metal contents in the agricultural soils highly disturbed by anthropogenic activities in the suburbs of a City, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China, and to establish Environmental Geochemical Baseline models of heavy metal elements, a total of 534 topsoil samples were collected in the study areas.【Methods】 The contents of heavy metals, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, and inert elements, Li, Eu, Sc and Sm in the soils were analyzed. As and Hg were measured with the atomic fluorescence spectrometry; Pb and Zn, with the X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy (XRF); Cd, Cu, Ni, Li, Eu, Sc and Sm, with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using Li, Eu, Sc and Sm as standard factors, the Environment Geochemical Baseline models of the heavy metal elements were established. According to the Risk Control Standard for Soil Contamination of Agricultural Land (GB 15618-2018),the method of Single Factor Pollution Index were applied to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution in the study areas. While the enrichment factor (EF)and the potential ecological risk (PER) by individual metal and combined effect of metals were determined, by using the Environment Geochemical Baseline Values as standard factors.【Results】 The contents of heavy metal elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the soils were in the ranges of 2.28~106.0 mg·kg-1, 0.04~4.91 mg·kg-1, 16.00~221.0 mg·kg-1, 12.90~216.0 mg·kg-1, 0.03~2.31 mg·kg-1, 6.76~102.0 mg·kg-1, 12.40~245.0 mg·kg-1 and 51.70 ~864.0 mg·kg-1, respectively.Choose the inert elements with the best correlations to heavy metals as the standard factors to obtain the Environment Geochemical baselines of As 11.13mg·kg-1, Cd 0.38mg·kg-1, Cr 57.49 mg·kg-1, Cu 43.86 mg·kg-1, Hg 0.30 mg·kg-1, Ni 21.55 mg·kg-1, Pb 51.91 mg·kg-1 and Zn 132.68 mg·kg-1. A polluted rate of the monitoring points of the different heavy metals was in the decreasing order of Cd 59.55%> Cu 24.34%>Hg 17.42%>Pb 13.11%>Zn 12.36%> As2.81%>Cr 0.37%=Ni 0.37%.The concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb were higher than the Environment Geochemical Baseline Values in more than 40% of samples; those heavy metal elements were anthropogenically loaded into the agricultural soils of the study areas. Although large area of he study areas experienced moderate to serious level of pollution, most of the heavy metals showed low risk to the environment. Only Cd and Hg showed moderate to high risk to the environment.【Conclusions】Spatial analyses of EF and PER of the heavy metal elements by applying the GIS information system can effectively determine the source and scope of heavy metal pollution,and assess the potential ecological risks of heavy metal pollution for early warning in the study areas. Over 68.91% of the agricultural soils in the study areas were polluted by heavy metals to different extents, and 3.18% were severely polluted due to intensive anthropogenic activities. The polluted areas were mainly distributed nearby metal mines and printing and dyeing companies.
Key words:  Heavy mentals  Soils  Environmental geochemical baselines  Enrichment factors (EF)  Potential ecological risk (PER)