引用本文:赵 政,陈 巍,王 欢,夏可心,高仁维,姜斯琪,庞 冠,蔡 枫.木霉微生物肥与减量化肥配施对番茄产量、品质及土壤肥力的影响[J].土壤学报,2018,55(5):1243-1253.
ZHAO Zheng,CHEN Wei,WANG Huan,XIA Kexin,GAO Renwei,JIANG Siqi,Pang Guan,CAI Feng.Effects of Bio-manure combined with Chemical Fertilizer Reduced in Application Rate on Soil Fertility and Yield and Quality of Tomato[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(5):1243-1253
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木霉微生物肥与减量化肥配施对番茄产量、品质及土壤肥力的影响
赵 政,陈 巍,王 欢,夏可心,高仁维,姜斯琪,庞 冠,蔡 枫
江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学,江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学,江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学,江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学,江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学,江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学,江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学,江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室,江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学
摘要:
研究利用植物促生菌提高肥料效率以部分替代化肥。采用大田试验结合连续盆栽试验的方法,以100%化肥(CF)为对照,设置如下处理:75%化肥配施普通有机肥(OF)或木霉微生物肥(BF)或木霉孢子悬液(SS)。结果表明,75%化肥配施以一定量(50 g·株-1)木霉微生物肥可维持田间番茄稳产,与100%化肥处理产量相当;而与普通有机肥或木霉孢子悬液灌根配施则会显著降低番茄产量,连续栽种4季后,产量下降35%以上。此外,BF处理可显著提高番茄果实的品质,与CF相比,总可溶性糖和维生素C含量分别提高35%~54%和2%~23%,而硝酸盐积累量下降32%~46%。究其原因,BF处理中木霉功能菌的有效定殖促进了番茄根际细菌、真菌、放线菌的增殖,土壤养分的有效性显著提高,表现为根际微生物数量与多项土壤肥力指标呈显著相关关系。综上,木霉微生物肥与减量化肥配施,可有效保证番茄稳产,提高番茄品质,长期施用还可提高土壤微生物数量、改善土壤肥力。
关键词:  木霉微生物肥  减量化肥  番茄产量  果实品质  土壤养分  土壤微生物区系
DOI:10.11766/trxb201802270062
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划
Effects of Bio-manure combined with Chemical Fertilizer Reduced in Application Rate on Soil Fertility and Yield and Quality of Tomato
ZHAO Zheng,CHEN Wei,WANG Huan,XIA Kexin,GAO Renwei,JIANG Siqi,Pang Guan and CAI Feng
Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University
Abstract:
【Objective】The use of plant growth-promoting microbes to improve plant nutrition and hence reduce the rate of chemical fertilizer is becoming a popular strategy for sustainable agriculture.【Method】In this work, a field-pot experiment, designed to have four treatments, i.e. CF (control, 100% of chemical fertilizer at a conventional rate), Treatment OF (Chemical fertilizer, 75% of the conventional application rate plus organic manure, 50 g·plant-1), Treatment BF (Chemical fertilizer, 75% of the conventional application rate plus Trichoderma-enriched bio-manure), and Treatment SS (Chemical fertilizer, 75% of the conventional application rate plus Trichoderma spore suspension), was conducted on the crop of tomato.【Result】Results of the field experiment demonstrated that Treatment BF was almost the same in yield as CF, while Treatment OF and Treatment SS was significantly lower than CF. The field experiment and the pot experiment displayed the same trend. In the pot experiment of four successive cropping of tomato, Treatment OF and Treatment SS decreased by 6%~38% and 9%~35%, respectively, in tomato yield as compared with CF. Besides, the treatments significantly affected quality of the tomato fruit (p < 0.05), by reducing NO3- accumulation by 32%~46% in the fruit under greenhouse, while Treatments BF and OF increased the content of Vitamin C and the content of total soluble sugar in the fruit by 2%~23% and 35%~54%, respectively. The field experiment also showed that Treatments BF and OF increased the content of total soluble sugar in the fruit by approximately 40% while decreasing NO3- accumulation by 42%~57%. In the pot experiment, Treatments BF and OF were significantly higher than CF and Treatment SS in content of available P and K (p < 0.05), while CK was always the highest in content of ammonia-N among the 4 treatments throughout the 4 growing seasons. The soil nitrate-N gradually increased with the cropping going on in all the treatments, particularly Treatments BF and OF, which were significantly higher than CF. Moreover, Treatment BF was much higher than the other two and CF in population of soil microbes and in most cases, it sustained relatively big populations of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. Pearson correlation analysis shows that soil nutrients were closely related to population of soil microbes, and that the population of Trichoderma in the soil was positively and significantly related to that of soil fungi and actinomycetes, which may be attributed to the effect of Trichoderma, once colonized in Treatment BF, stimulating propagation of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of tomato and hence enhancing availability of soil nutrients. The population of soil microbes in the rhizosphere of the crop was also found positively and significantly related to numerous soil fertility indices.【Conclusion】To sum up, all the findings in the experiment suggests that the application of chemical fertilizer, 75% of the conventional application rate, plus Trichoderma-enriched bio-manure can effectively guarantee a stable yield of tomato higher in quality, and in the long run, increase the population of soil microbes and improve soil fertility.
Key words:  Trichoderma-enriched bio-organic manure  Chemical fertilizer of a reduced rate  Tomato yield  Fruit quality  Soil nutrient  Soil microflora