引用本文:段青松,赵燚柯,杨 松,王金霞,杨 旸,龚爱民,孙高峰,杨苍玲,余建新.不同草本植物根系提高无侧限受压土体的抗剪强度[J].土壤学报,2019,56(3):650-660.
DUAN Qingsong,ZHAO Yike,YANG Song,WANG Jinxia,YANG Yang,GONG Aimin,SUN Gaofeng,YANG Cangling,YU Jianxin.Effect of Herb Roots Improving Shear Strength of Unconfined Compressed Solum[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(3):650-660
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不同草本植物根系提高无侧限受压土体的抗剪强度
段青松1, 赵燚柯1, 杨 松2, 王金霞3, 杨 旸4, 龚爱民2, 孙高峰1, 杨苍玲1, 余建新1
1.云南农业大学水利学院国土资源科学技术工程研究中心;2.云南农业大学水利学院;3.西南有色昆明勘测设计研究(院)股份有限公司;4.河海大学水利水电学院
摘要:
研究草本植物根系提高无侧限受压土体的抗剪能力,为根系固土护坡计算和草种选择提供依据。采用无侧限抗压强度试验,测定了素土和3种草根土复合体的黏聚力(C),分析了黏聚力增量△C与根系特征值间的关系。结果表明:非洲狗尾草、鸭茅、紫花苜蓿的根系可将0~25 cm范围内土体的黏聚力提高4.75、4.04、1.39 kPa,25~50 cm范围内土体提高3.10 、2.32、0.71 kPa。非洲狗尾草、鸭茅柱体破坏面根密度(RD)、根面积比(RAR)、复合体含根量(Q)与△C呈二次显著相关,并以Q与△C相关性最好;根系平均直径Tr,a与△C不相关;紫花苜蓿的4个量与△C没有相关性。非洲狗尾草根系提高土体抗剪强度能力最强,鸭茅次之,紫花苜蓿最差,紫花苜蓿提高值的变化幅度最大;上层根系提高值要大于下层。对非洲狗尾草、鸭茅等斜生根系草本,在RD、RAR、Q三个根系特征指标中,Q是计算根系提高土体抗剪强度的最优指标。对所计算植物边坡多点取样进行无侧限抗压强度试验,使得采用概率论计算其稳定性成为可能。
关键词:  草本植物  根系  无侧限受压土体  抗剪强度
DOI:10.11766/trxb201807030113
分类号:
基金项目:国土资源部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201511003-3)
Effect of Herb Roots Improving Shear Strength of Unconfined Compressed Solum
DUAN Qingsong1, ZHAO Yike1, YANG Song2, WANG Jinxia3, YANG Yang4, GONG Aimin2, SUN Gaofeng1, YANG Cangling1, YU Jianxin1
1.Engineering Research Center of Science and Technology of Land and Resources, College of Water Conservancy, Yunnan Agricultural University;2.College of Water Conservancy, Yunnan Agricultural University;3.Southwest Nonferrous Kunming Survey and Design Institute (Institute) Co;4.College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University
Abstract:
【Objective】The aim of this study was to explore effects and mechanism of herb roots in natural state improving shear strength of unconfined compressed solum, so as to provide a scientific basis for calculating the capacity of herb roots to reinforce slopes and selecting proper species of grasses to grow on slopes.【Method】The experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of the Yunnan Agricultural University, China. In January 2016, a total of 40 PVC tubes, 51cm in length, 110 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm in thickness were all cut in half, and then the halves were bound together by pair with rubber bands. Upland red soil < 5 mm in particle size was packed into in these rubber band fixed tubes with the bottom sealed with plastic film up to 50 cm. The soil in the tubes was 28.31% in moisture content and 0.78 g.cm-1 in dry density. The tubes were divided into four groups, 10 each. Three groups were sown with seeds of Setariaanceps Stapf ex Massey L., Dactylisglomerata L. and Medicago sativa L. 12 seeds each tube, separately, in May, and the other group left unplanted as control for comparison, Besides, the three species of grasses were planted, separately, in the field, 1 m2 each in plot area for determination of tensile strength of the grass roots. In October, out of each group, 7 tubes were picked randomly, placed in water for 24 h until they were fully saturated, and then removed out of water. The tubes were split off and the soil columns inside taken out. Shoots of the plants were cut off. The soil columns were cut into two, 25 cm each, in the middle with a hacksaw. From each half of the soil columns, a section of 20 cm in the middle was taken as test samples and the section was 10.36 cm in diameter. The samples were analyzed for saturation density and saturated water content and tested for unconfined shear strength on a SJ-1A type strain controlling triaxial apparatus (made in Nanjing Soil Instrument Factory, China). The test went on in line with the geotechnical test code (SL237-1999) of China. Before the test the pressure cell and pressure system was removed from the apparatus and then the sample was put on the platform of the triaxial compression system for pressure test with a shearing rate of 4.14 mm?min-1. A dial gauge was used to monitor deformation of the soil column and of the dynamometric ring and record the process of ess-strain until collapse of the sample or the total axial strain reaching 20%. For soil samples that stood the pressure even after the total axial strain reached 20%, their shear strength should be the value that corresponded to the one when the strain reached 15%. After the compression test, the soil columns were separated along the failure surface, and then the roots appearing on the failure surface were counted and measured with an electronic calipers for diameter; Biomass of the roots in the sample was measured after the samples were oven dried. In October, roots of the three species of grasses growing in the field were dug up and measured with an electronic calipers for diameter and with a Shandu SN100 tension tester and a universal testing machine for tensile resistance of each root.【Result】 (1) The root systems of all the species of grasses enhanced the cohesive strength (△C) of the 0~25 cm soil layer by 4.75 kPa for Setariaanceps Stapf ex Massey L., by 4.40 kPa for Dactylisglomerata L. and by 1.39 kPa for Medicago sativa L., and that of the 25~50 cm soil layer by 3.10, 2.32 and 0.71 kPa, respectively; (2) △C (increment in tensile strength) was significantly related to root density (RD) and root area ratio (RAR) of Setariaanceps Stapf ex Massey L. and Dactylisglomerata L. roots in the failure surface and root content (Q) in the soil-root complex. The relationship between Q and △C was the highest. However, △C was not related with mean diameter of the roots (Tr,a). In the case of Medicago sativa L. △C had nothing to do with all the four root parameters.【Conclusion】 Setariaanceps Stapf ex Massey L. is the highest and Medicago sativa L. the lowest in the effect of enhancing shear strength of the soil. △C of Medicago sativa L. varies sharply, being higher in the upper half section than in the lower half section. As Setariaanceps Stapf ex Massey L. and Dactylisglomerata L. are herbs dominated with oblique root, among the three root parameters, RD, RAR and Q, Q is the best index for calculating △C, which makes it feasible to use the probability theory to calcuate stability of the unconfined compression test of samples collected from a number of sampling points on a vegetated slope.
Key words:  Herb  Roots  Unconfined compressive strength test  Shear strength