引用本文:周隆胤,简敏菲,余厚平,李文华,刘淑丽.乐安河-鄱阳湖段底泥微塑料的分布特征及其来源[J].土壤学报,2018,55(5):1222-1232.
ZHOU Longyin,JIAN Minfei,YU Houping,LI Wenhua,LIU Shuli.Distribution of Microplastics and its Source in the Sediments of the Le’an River in Poyang Lake[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(5):1222-1232
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乐安河-鄱阳湖段底泥微塑料的分布特征及其来源
简敏菲,周隆胤,余厚平,刘淑丽,李文华
江西师范大学鄱阳湖生态与流域研究教育部重点实验室,江西师范大学生命科学学院,江西师范大学生命科学学院,江西师范大学生命科学学院,江西师范大学生命科学学院
摘要:
微塑料(粒径<5 mm)作为一种新型污染物近年来正日益被国际社会普遍关注。以乐安河-鄱阳湖段为研究区,分别选择乐安河上游、乐安河支流(大坞河区)和乐安河中下游等3段不同典型区域,共设置9个采样点,调查并研究乐安河-鄱阳湖段沉积物中微塑料的丰度、组成比例及其来源。结果表明:乐安河-鄱阳湖段沉积物中微塑料的主要成分为碎片类(58.3%)、泡沫类(21.5%),薄膜类(13.8%)、纤维类(6.4%);各样点微塑料的平均丰度值为1 800 ind•kg-1,与其他区域的研究结果相比处于中等偏高的水平;乐安河3个典型区域微塑料的平均丰度值分别为上游区1 121 ind•kg-1,其支流大坞河区为2 871 ind•kg-1,下游区为1 366 ind•kg-1,表现为乐安河支流(大坞河)高于乐安河中下游高于乐安河上游。对乐安河流域微塑料的来源分析表明,乐安河流域微塑料的主要来源为采样地附近工业污染物的排放、流域附近城市生活中塑料垃圾的排放以及人类的渔业活动等等;对分离出来的微塑料进行扫描电镜分析发现微塑料表面粗糙、撕裂程度明显,存在不同程度的风化痕迹;能谱分析结果显示,微塑料表层有Si、Fe、Mg、O、Al、Ca等元素的不同物质形态存在,可能进一步加剧微塑料对环境及其生物的危害性。
关键词:  鄱阳湖  乐安河  微塑料  丰度  粒径  表面形貌
DOI:10.11766/trxb201803010115
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41461042,31460147)、江西省自然科学基金项目(20171BAB214011)和江西省教育厅科技计划项目(GJJ60311)
Distribution of Microplastics and its Source in the Sediments of the Le’an River in Poyang Lake
JIAN Min-fei,Zhou Longyin,Yu Houping,Liu Shuli and Li Wenhua
Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research,Ministry of Education,Jiangxi Normal University,Nanchang,College of Life Science, Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of Protection and Utilization of Subtropical Plant Resources, Jiangxi Normal University,College of Life Science, Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of Protection and Utilization of Subtropical Plant Resources, Jiangxi Normal University,College of Life Science, Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of Protection and Utilization of Subtropical Plant Resources, Jiangxi Normal University,College of Life Science, Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of Protection and Utilization of Subtropical Plant Resources, Jiangxi Normal University
Abstract:
【Objective】Microplastics (< 5 mm in particle size) in the environment as a new type of pollutant have become a widely concerned issue in recent years. Microplastics may pose certain risks to marine ecosystems because they are very small in particle size, high in abundance, and ubiquitous in distribution and hence readily ingested by marine organisms, such as fish, shellfish, etc. and to wetland ecological environments, too. Recent years have witnessed rapid growth of the number of research reports about microplastics pollution the world over, but just initiation in China. In this study, the Le’an River Section of the Poyang Lake, a tract of wetland, was defined as its research site and samples of sediments were collected from the wetland for analysis of content of microplastics so as to explore distribution and sources of the microplastics in the region, and provide some scientific data for studies of microplastic pollution in inland lake and river wetlands. 【Method】This study combined field surveys and sampling for indoor analysis methods. Samples of sediments were collected from the nine sampling sites distributed in three typical sections of the region, that is,, the upper-stream of the Le’an River, the tributary (the Dawu River) of the Le’an River and the mid- and down-streams of the river, for microscopic, SEM-EDS and FTIR analyses. Abundance, surface morphology, composition and source of the microplastics in the sediments was determined. 【Result】 Results show that the microplastics in the surface sediments of the region were composed mainly of those in the shape of fragment (58.3%), fiber (21.5%), films (13.8%) and foam (6.4%). The average of the 9 sampling sites in abundance of microplastics was 1 800 ind•kg-1,whih tended to be on the high side as compared with the findings of the researches in other areas. The average of the upstream of the Le'an River, the tributary River (Dawu River) and the downstream of the Le'an River, was 1 121 ind•kg-1, 2 871 ind•kg-1 and 1 366 ind•kg-1, respectively, forming an order of tributary > upper-stream > mid- and lower-streams. Source analysis of the microplastics reveals that industrial pollutants discharged from industries in the neighborhood, and plastic wastes discarded from cities and towns alongside the river and fishery activities were the major sources; SEM-EDS analysis shows that the microplastics were weathered to a varying degree with rough surface and apparent tears; And energy spectrum analysis demonstrates that onto the surface of the microplastics adsorbed were substances and elements, such as Si, Fe, Mg, O, Al, Ca, etc., which aggravated hazardness of the microplastics to the environment and the organisms therein. 【Conclusion】There are 4 kinds of microplastics in the sediments of the Le’an River and the Poyang Lake, in terms of morphology, that is, are fragments, foams, films and fibers. The average abundance of microplastics in the region is 1 800 ind•kg-1, which is sorted to be moderate tending to be on the high side, compared with that of other regions similar in environment. The microplastics come mainly from nearby industries, residential settlements and fishery activities. The microplastics appear to be weathered to a varying degree with rough surface and obvious tears and gibbosities, which lead to expansion of their specific surface areas, and enhancement of their adsorption capacities for organic pollutants, heavy metal ions and microbes, thus aggravating their hazardness to the environment and organisms therein.
Key words:  Poyang Lake  Le'an River  Microplastics  Abundance  Particle size  Surface morphology