引用本文:陈懿,林英超,黄化刚,林叶春,高维常,潘文杰.炭基肥对植烟黄壤性状和烤烟养分积累、产量及品质的影响[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):496-505.
CHEN Yi,LIN Yingchao,HUANG Huagang,LIN Yechun,GAO Weichang,PAN Wenjie.Effect of Biochar-Based Fertilizer on Properties of Tobacco-planting Yellow Soil, and Nutrient Accumulation, Yield and Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):496-505
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炭基肥对植烟黄壤性状和烤烟养分积累、产量及品质的影响
陈懿,林英超,黄化刚,林叶春,高维常,潘文杰
贵州省烟草科学研究院,贵州省烟草科学研究院,贵州省烟草公司毕节市公司,贵州省烟草科学研究院,贵州省烟草科学研究院,贵州省烟草科学研究院
摘要:
针对贵州植烟黄壤酸化、水肥流失、瘠薄以及烤烟养分吸收和产量偏低等问题。以我国主要烤烟品种云烟87和贵州黄壤为供试材料,通过大田试验,设置不施肥(NF)、常规肥(CF,条施酒糟有机肥和烤烟专用基肥,穴施烤烟专用追肥)和炭基肥(BF,条施炭基酒糟有机肥和炭基复混肥,穴施烤烟专用追肥)3个处理,研究炭基肥对植烟黄壤的化学性质、微生物数量、酶活性和烤烟养分积累、产量、挥发性香气物质、化学成分的影响,以期为推动炭基肥在贵州植烟黄壤保育、烤烟养分和品质调控上的应用提供科学指导。结果表明:与常规肥(CF)比较,施用炭基肥(BF)可以显著提升土壤pH、有效磷和速效钾含量;显著增加土壤细菌、放线菌和真菌数量;提高土壤脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性,其中过氧化氢酶活性增幅显著,达10.6%;提高肥料农学利用率;提高烤烟氮、磷、钾积累量和产量、烟叶挥发性香气物质总含量;显著增加烟叶类胡萝卜素含量。上述结果表明炭基肥可以保育植烟黄壤,提升烤烟养分积累和调控烟叶香气,可在贵州及我国西南类似烟区推广应用。
关键词:  烤烟  炭基肥  黄壤  养分积累  产量  品质
DOI:10.11766/trxb201806060133
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31601273)、贵州省烟草公司科技项目(201614)和贵州省烟草公司毕节市公司科技项目(201652050024139)
Effect of Biochar-Based Fertilizer on Properties of Tobacco-planting Yellow Soil, and Nutrient Accumulation, Yield and Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco
CHEN Yi,LIN Yingchao,HUANG Huagang,LIN Yechun,GAO Weichang and PAN Wenjie
Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science,Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science,Bijie Tobacco Company of Guizhou Province,Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science,Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science,Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science
Abstract:
In order to solve the problems with tobacco-planting yellow soil (acidification, loss of water and nutrient, low productivity) and flue-cured tobacco ( low nutrient uptake and yield) in Guizhou, a field fertilization experiment on flue-cured tobacco, Yun 87 in variety was conducted in 2016 in a tract of tobacco-planting yellow soil typical of Guizhou, to explore effect of different fertilization on chemical and biological properties of the soil, and nutrient accumulation, yield, volatile aroma components and chemical components of the flue-cured tobacco. The experiment was designed to have three fertilization treatments, (1) NF, (no fertilization)as CK, (2) CF (conventional fertilization, band placement of organic manure of vinasse + base fertilizer specialized for flue-cured tobacco + pit placement of side-dressing specialized for flue-cured tobacco), and (3) BF (band placement of biochar-based organic manure of vinasse + biochar-based compound fertilizer + pit placement of side-dressing specialized for flue-cured tobacco). Compared to CF, BF significantly increased soil pH, the contents of soil available phosphorus and available potassium, the amounts of soil bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and also the activities of soil urease and catalase (CAT), among of which, CAT activity was increased significantly by 10.6%. In addition, BF improved the fertilizer agronomic efficiencies , the yield and the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of the flue-cured tobacco, and the total contents of volatile aroma components and carotenoid in the flue-cured tobacco leaves. All the findings demonstrate that the application of biochar-based fertilizer can help build up quality of the tobacco-planting yellow soil, promote nutrient accumulation of the flue-cured tobacco, regulate aroma components in the flue-cured tobacco. Therefore, the biochar–based fertilizer can be extrapolated in similar flue-cured tobacco planting areas in Guizhou and Southwest China.
Key words:  Flue-cured tobacco  Biochar-based fertilizer  Yellow soil  Nutrient accumulation  Yield  Quality