引用本文:王丹阳,李忠武,陈 佳,朱小林,王凌霞,胡晓倩.县域水土保持区划方法的问题与改进[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):475-486.
WANG Danyang,LI Zhongwu,CHEN Jia,ZHU Xiaolin,WANG Lingxia,HU Xiaoqian.Problems and Improvements of Methods of Regionalization for Soil and Water Conservation at a County-Scale[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):475-486
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县域水土保持区划方法的问题与改进
王丹阳1,2, 李忠武1,2, 陈 佳3, 朱小林4, 王凌霞1,2, 胡晓倩1,2
1.湖南大学环境科学与工程学院;2.湖南大学环境生物与控制教育部重点实验室;3.黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所;4.湖南省国土资源规划院
摘要:
在中国水土保持区划近70年的发展历程中,其方法不断完善,突出表现为“3S”技术和数理模型的应用、经济和生态学概念的引入,但仍存有问题:定量方法选用的指标冗杂、部分指标间共线性强、尺度差异未体现;定性因子考虑不足,指标数据实际含义削弱,仅作为数值被计算;生态系统服务功能的融入只体现在区划工作结束后,无法影响区划过程。针对此,依据已有区划实践和相关理论,提出县域尺度水土保持区划方法的优化设计方案:构建水土流失危险性、土壤侵蚀态势、水土保持能力的三维指标框架,选用坡度、植被覆盖率、人口密度、土地利用强度、生态系统服务功能、土壤侵蚀综合指数、资金/技术投入、交通通达度和水保工作积极性共计9项指标,结合定性分析将每个评价单元按其不同的三维组合类型划分到不同的水土保持区。
关键词:  区划  水土保持  水土流失  生态系统服务功能
DOI:10.11766/trxb201806150134
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0505401)
Problems and Improvements of Methods of Regionalization for Soil and Water Conservation at a County-Scale
WANG Danyang1,2, LI Zhongwu1,2, CHEN Jia3, ZHU Xiaolin4, WANG Lingxia1,2, HU Xiaoqian1,2
1.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University;2.Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education;3.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS and MWR;4.Hunan Planning Institute of Land and Resources
Abstract:
Regionalization of soil and water conservation in China is to, based on the inhomogeneous of natural characteristics and socio-economic conditions, and also takes into consideration, where available, already developed maps of spatial variations of soil erosion, divide a certain area into functional regions, with the hope that region-specific management rather than site-specific management could be applied without too much adjustment in each region. China spans nearly 50 degrees in latitude and has almost all existing landform patterns; types and rates and controls of soil erosion vary substantially from one region to another (e.g. the Loess Plateau versus the Tibet Plateau). In light of these particularities, appeals for regionalization of soil and water conservation could be justified. Hence this article examed the nearly 70 year’s development of regionalization of soil and water conservation in China with the purpose to recognize its characteristics and if exist, drawbacks, and thus put forward a new method for regionalization of soil and water conservation at a county-scale with the hope to help with further improvement of the regionalization. To catch sight of the characteristics in the developing process of regionalization of soil and water conservation, a total of more than 400 articles were downloaded from CNKI and reviewed and studied. To detect the drawbacks of existing regionalizations of soil and water conservation, statistical analysis is used here. To design the new method of regionalization at county-scale, scenario simulation is employed and the P-S-R model were adopted. Based on thoroughly retrospection of the nearly 70 year history of development of regionalization of soil and water conservation in China, the authors characterized the methodical advance that from qualitation to quantitation, including the employment of “3S”(RS/GIS/GPS) technology and mathematical models, and the progress of regionalization’s conceptional framework, especially the introduction of knowledge within economics and ecology disciplines. These methods, however, have their limits because of the conflict between old fashions and new prospect which could be concluded to three point: first, indicators used by quantitative methods are miscellaneous, making some of which have strong correlation, while the scale effect have not been reflected by indicator system; second, some of the key qualitative factors (such as enthusiasm for soil conservation practice) are difficult to be included in the process of regionalization because quantitative methods are unable to process indicators identified by descriptions but not data, moreover, mathematical methods only calculate indicators as numbers without concerning their actual meanings of the data in calculate; third, ecosystem functions are integrated in the process of regionalization in a manner that could hardly influence the result of regionalization scheme. In this end, based on the already existing schemes and theories of other discipline, methods of regionalization of soil and water conservation at county-scale are re-designed: risk of soil and water loss, soil erosion condition, capacity of soil and water conservation are used to build a three-dimension indicator framework, and a total of nine indicators are included in the indicator system, which are slope (°), vegetation coverage (%), population density (person•m-3), land use intensity (%), ecosystem functions (Yuan), index of soil erosion (1), capital/technique input (Yuan•a-1), traffic accessibility (m•m-2), and enthusiasm on soil conservation practice (1). For each evaluating unit, combination type of the three dimensions are employed to determine its region in the regionalization of soil and water conservation. Compared with the existing regionalization schemes where cluster analysis is also integrated, this new county-scale-oriented regionalization method eliminates unnecessary indicators into the indicator system while also maintains their practical implications. By combining qualitation and quantitation in determining the region of each evaluating unit belongs to, this new method could to some extent contribute to a more accurate regionalization of soil and water conservation and therefore, contribute to further soil and water conservation practice.
Key words:  Regionalization  Soil and water conservation  Soil and water loss  Ecosystem functions