引用本文:张忠启,茆 彭,于东升,徐 莉.近25年来典型红壤区土壤pH变化特征 —以江西省余江县为例[J].土壤学报,2018,55(6):1545-1553.
ZHANG Zhongqi,MAO Peng,YU Dongsheng,XU Li.Characteristics of Soil pH Variation in Typical Red Soil Region of South China in the Past 25 Years —A Case Study of Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(6):1545-1553
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近25年来典型红壤区土壤pH变化特征 —以江西省余江县为例
张忠启,茆彭,于东升,徐莉
江苏师范大学,江苏师范大学,中国科学院南京土壤研究所,江苏师范大学
摘要:
近些年中国南方红壤区土壤酸化问题的受关注程度有所下降,但酸化一直是红壤生态系统面临的主要问题之一,查明土壤pH时空演变特征对该地区制定合理高效的农业和环境管理措施具有重要意义。基于江西省余江县1982年和2007年的土壤采样数据,分析了全县两个采样时期的土壤pH空间分布格局及近25年来的演变趋势。结果表明,余江县土壤pH已由1982年的5.66,降至2007年的4.74。从土壤类型来看,潮土的pH下降幅度最大,达到1.02,水稻土和红壤的下降幅度较为接近,分别为0.89和0.88;从土地利用方式来看,林地和水田pH降幅分别为1.00和0.92,旱地降幅为0.82。从全县范围来看,绝大部分地区土壤pH出现大幅下降,中北部和西南部的部分地区下降幅度较突出;相对于1982年,2007年土壤pH降幅分别以0.8~1.2和0.4~0.8区间为主,分别占全县面积的73.82%和15.46%;全县土壤1982年以微酸等级为主,而2007年除全县近13.0%的区域土壤已成为强酸土壤外,其余大部分地区土壤也已接近强酸等级。可见,自全国第二次土壤普查以来近25年间,余江全县及各土壤类型和土地利用方式的土壤pH大幅下降,土壤酸化形势严峻,亟需采取相应措施加以应对。
关键词:  土壤pH  时空变异  土壤类型  土地利用  红壤区
DOI:10.11766/trxb201804230159
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41201213,41571206)和土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室开放基金项目(Y20160008)
Characteristics of Soil pH Variation in Typical Red Soil Region of South China in the Past 25 Years —A Case Study of Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province
ZHANG Zhongqi,MAO Peng,YU Dongsheng and XU Li
Jiangsu Normal University,Jiangsu Normal University,Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Jiangsu Normal University
Abstract:
Recent years have witnessed less attention paid on soil acidification in the red soil region of Southern China, though it remains to be one of the main problems in the red soil ecosystem. So it is of great significance to explore temporal-spatial variability of soil pH in designing reasonable measures for agriculture and environmental management in the region. Analysis was done of the data of soil sampling in Yujiang in 1982 and 2007 for spatio-temporal distribution and variation of soil pH in the region during the two sampling periods and trend of the variation in the past 25 years. Results showed that the soil pH in Yujiang County has been obviously declining since the 2nd National Soil Survey. It declined from 5.66 in 1982 to 4.74 in 2007. Among the main types of soils that Yujiang has, fluvo-aquic soil dropped the most or by 1.02 in soil pH, and was followed quite closely by paddy soil and red soil, which did by 0.89 and 0.88 respectively. Among the main land use patterns, paddy field and upland field declined by 1.00, 0.92 and 0.82, respectively. Among the regions of the county, most declined sharply, especially parts in the central-northern and southwestern regions, which accounted for 68.13% and 84.54% of the total land area of Yujiang County, respectively. Compared with 1982, 2007 saw soil pH in the two parts dropping by 0.4~0.8 and 0.8~1.2, separately. Furthermore, the county was dominated by weakly-acid soil in 1982, while about 13.0% of the county’s soil turned to be strongly-acid in 2007, with the remaining being nearly the same, that is, strongly-acid. All the findings in this study indicate that the soil in Yujiang county, regardless of soil types and land use patterns, declined in pH by a large margin in the 25 years from 1982 to 2007. So the situation of soil acidification is very serious in the county, calling urgently for effective remediation measures.
Key words:  Soil pH  Spatio-temporal variability  Soil type  Land use  Red soil region