引用本文:李云龙,王宝英,常亚锋,续勇波,黄新琦,张金波,蔡祖聪,赵 军.土壤强还原处理对三七连作障碍因子及再植三七生长的影响[J].土壤学报,2019,56(3):703-715.
LI Yunlong,WANG Baoying,CHANG Yafeng,XU Yongbo,HUANG Xinqi,ZHANG Jinbo,CAI Zucong,ZHAO Jun.Effects of Reductive Soil Disinfestation on Obstacles and Growth of Replant Seedlings in Sanqi Ginseng Mono-Cropped Soils[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(3):703-715
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土壤强还原处理对三七连作障碍因子及再植三七生长的影响
李云龙,王宝英,常亚锋,续勇波,黄新琦,张金波,蔡祖聪,赵 军
1.南京师范大学地理科学学院;2.云南农业大学烟草学院
摘要:
为研究土壤强还原处理(Reductive soil disinfestation,RSD)对连作三七土壤中障碍因子及再植三七生长的影响,以云南省文山州连作三七土壤为研究对象,设置4个处理:对照(CK);分别添加高碳氮比有机物料(C/N 94,15 t•hm-2,SB),低碳氮比有机物料(C/N 19,15 t•hm-2,BD),高、低碳氮比有机物料等质量混合(15 t•hm-2,SB+BD)的RSD处理。利用高效液相色谱测定土壤中皂苷类物质的含量,通过定量PCR和变性梯度凝胶电泳测定土壤微生物数量和群落结构,并统计再植三七的存苗率和发病率。结果表明,与CK相比,RSD能够显著消减土壤中皂苷类物质的含量,其中BD和SB+BD对Rb1和Rh1的降解率分别高达82.1%和85.8%~88.1%。RSD还能有效杀灭尖孢镰刀菌,显著降低其在真菌类群中的比例,其中杀菌率高达99.7%。同时,移栽5个月后,RSD处理再植三七的存苗率提高7.3倍~8.5倍,发病率由89.0%降低至12.9%~16.1%。因此,土壤强还原处理能够显著消减连作三七土壤中积累的障碍因子,改善土壤微生物群落结构,提高存苗率,降低发病率,是一种具有快速缓解三七连作障碍潜力的农业措施。
关键词:  土壤强还原处理  三七  连作障碍  化感物质  尖孢镰刀菌  土壤微生物群落
DOI:10.11766/trxb201806110164
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41701277,41771281)、中国博士后科学基金面上项目(2018M630573)和江苏省研究生科研与实践创新计划项目(KYCX18_1201)
Effects of Reductive Soil Disinfestation on Obstacles and Growth of Replant Seedlings in Sanqi Ginseng Mono-Cropped Soils
LI Yunlong1, WANG Baoying1, CHANG Yafeng2, XU Yongbo3, HUANG Xinqi1, ZHANG Jinbo1, CAI Zucong1, ZHAO Jun1
1.Nanjing Normal University;2.School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University;3.College of Tobacco Science, Yunnan Agricultural University
Abstract:
【Objective】Sanqi ginseng Panax notoginseng [(Burk.) F. H. Chen] is a valuable traditional Chinese medicinal herb grown in Yunnan. It is no good to cultivate the plants continuously in the same field. Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is a technique for pre-planting soil treatment that has been proven to be successful in overcoming the obstacles of monocropping of vegetable, flower, etc. However, it is not sure whether RSD can help overcome the obstacles of monocropping of Sanqi ginseng. Therefore, this study was designed to explore effects of RSD on obstacles in monocropping of Sanqi ginseng and growth of seedlings of the crop. 【Method】 A field experiment was carried out, designed to have four treatments, i.e. CK (control without soil treatment); SB [RSD coupled with application of 15 t•hm-2 organic substrate high in C/N ratio, (C/N 94)]; BD [RSD coupled with application of 15 t•hm-2 organic substrate low in C/N ratio (C/N 19)]; and SB+BD [RSD coupled with application of 15 t•hm-2 organic substrate, containing both high and low C/N ones, half by half (m/m=1:1)]. Contents of saponins in the soils were measured with a high performance liquid chromatographer (HPLC), and microbial population and community structure were determined by means of real-time PCR and DGGE. Survival rate and disease incidence of replanted Sanqi ginseng seedlings were also recorded. 【Results】 Results show that RSD significantly helped degrade saponins as compared to CK. The degradation rate of Rb1 and Rh1 in treatments BD and SB+BD reached up to 82.1% and 85.8%~88.1%, respectively. Besides, RSD effectively reduced the population of Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) and lowered its proportion in the fungi community, with sterilizing rate reaching as high as 99.7%. Furthermore, the number of replanted Sanqi ginseng seedlings survived the transplantation for 5 months was 7.3~8.5 times higher in the RSD treatments than in CK, while disease incidence decreased significantly from 89.0% in CK to 12.9%~16.1% in the RSD treatments. 【Conclusion】Therefore, it is concluded that RSD can remarkably remove the obstacles in mono-cropping of Sanqi ginseng, improve the soil microbial community structure, raise the survival rate, and reduce the disease incidence of replanted Sanqi ginseng seedlings. So it is a promising agricultural practice to overcome the obstacles in monocropping of Sanqi ginseng.
Key words:  Reductive soil disinfestation  Sanqi ginseng  Monocropping obstacle  Allelochemicals  Fusarium oxysporum  Soil microbial community