引用本文:马 力,卜兆宏,梁文广,夏立忠,彭桂兰,徐姗姗,王冬梅,钟 敏.基于USLE原理和3S技术的水土流失定量监测方法及其应用研究[J].土壤学报,2019,56(3):602-614.
MA Li,BU Zhaohong,LIANG Wenguang,XIA Lizhong,PENG Guilan,XU Shanshan,WANG Dongmei,ZHONG Min.Method for Quantitative Monitoring of Soil Erosion Based on USLE Principle and 3S Technology and Its Application[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(3):602-614
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基于USLE原理和3S技术的水土流失定量监测方法及其应用研究
马 力1, 卜兆宏1, 梁文广2, 夏立忠1, 彭桂兰3, 徐姗姗3, 王冬梅2, 钟 敏2
1.中国科学院南京土壤研究所;2.江苏省水利科学研究院湖泊研究所;3.江苏省南京市水利局
摘要:
基于通用土壤流失方程(USLE)的基本原理,利用我国南北方各水蚀区的土壤流失量及其相关生态因子的大量实测数据,建立了适用于我国南北方的以3S(GIS、GPS和RS)技术为支持的水土流失定量监测方法。该系统方法在我国山东、福建、江苏、云南、北京、河北等地累计应用面积超过30万km2,其在江苏南京的应用时间最长,最具代表性。应用该方法在1997—2015期间对南京全市区域水土流失和治理状况进行长期定量监测研究,结果表明:19年间,南京全市平均年水土流失总量为2.765×106 t,平均轻度以上年水土流失面积为863.7 km2,占全市总面积的13.0%。轻度以上水土流失面积所占比例较小,但水土流失量占总流失量80%以上,因此,仍是水土流失治理和区域生态环境保护的重点方向;与2000年之前的监测结果相比,轻度以上水土流失面积和年土壤流失总量均有显著降低。该方法建立了更符合实际的模型因子算法和原则,监测精度和可靠性较高,监测结果验证了近年来南京市水土流失治理措施和生态环保监督管理实施力度加大,取得了明显成效。
关键词:  土壤侵蚀  3S(GIS、GPS、RS)  定量监测  生态保护  南京
DOI:10.11766/trxb201805310168
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院南京土壤研究所“一三五”计划和领域前沿项目 (ISSASIP1663)\科技部国家重点研发计划重点专项项目(2017YFF0108201)和国家自然科学基金项目(40171060)
Method for Quantitative Monitoring of Soil Erosion Based on USLE Principle and 3S Technology and Its Application
MA Li1, BU Zhaohong1, LIANG Wenguang2, XIA Lizhong1, PENG Guilan3, XU Shanshan3, WANG Dongmei2, ZHONG Min2
1.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS);2.Lake Research institute, Hydraulic Research Institute of Jiangsu Province;3.Nanjing Water Conservancy Bureau
Abstract:
[Objective] This study was oriented to develop and establish a method for quantitative monitoring of soil and water loss that is applicable to both the northern and southern parts of the country and to provide a basis for scientific decision-making for regional ecological environment protection in the future. [Method] Based on the principle of the universal soil loss equation (USLE) and the large volumes of measured data of soil erosion and its relevant ecological factors in various soil and water erosion areas in South and North of China, the new method for quantitative monitoring of soil erosion was established using the "3S" (GIS, GPS, RS) technology. This method has been applied to a total area of over 300 000 km2 covering Shandong, Fujian, Jiangsu, Yunnan, Beijing, Hebei and some other regions in China. Its application in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province is the longest in time and the most representative. During 1997-2015, this method was used in a long-term research to quantitatively monitor soil and water loss and soil erosion control in the entire Nanjing area. [Results] Results show that during the 19 years (1997-2015), the annual soil and water loss in Nanjing area reached 276.5×104 t, and the average area light and over in soil erosion level did 863.7 km2, accounting for 13.0 %. of the total area of Nanjing, only a small proportion, which, however, contributed, over 80% to the total loss, so it is still the key front of the battle for management of soil erosion and conservation of regional ecosystem; compared with the results of the monitoring before 2000 year, the area slight and over in soil erosion level were significantly lower in Nanjing area. [Conclusion] This method has its own algorithm and principle of model factors that are more consistent with the reality, so it is higher in accuracy and reliability. The monitoring with this method has validated that the city intensified its efforts in recent years to manage and control soil and water loss control and to supervise and manage the eco-environment in the area with remarkable achievements.
Key words:  Soil erosion  3S (GIS,GPS,RS)  Quantitative monitoring  Ecosystem conservation  Nanjing