引用本文:韩光中,谢贤健,李山泉.南方丘陵区不同母质水耕人为土发育速率的比较[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):298-309.
HAN Guangzhong,Xie Xianjian,Li Shanquan.Numerical Comparison between Hydragric Anthrosols of Different Parent Materials in Development in Hill Regions of South China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):298-309
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南方丘陵区不同母质水耕人为土发育速率的比较
韩光中1, 谢贤健1, 李山泉2
1.内江师范学院资源与环境科学学院;2.邢台学院资源与环境学院
摘要:
如何度量水耕人为土的发育程度和发育速率是土壤发生学的一个难题。选择南方丘陵区3种常见母质(紫色砂页岩类坡积物PS、第四纪红黏土RC和红砂岩类坡积物RS)发育的水耕人为土时间序列作为研究对象,尝试利用属性距离和土壤发育指数来表征水耕人为土的发育程度,揭示母质对水耕人为土发育速率的影响。结果表明,水耕人为土剖面形态特征经定量后和属性距离一样能够表征水耕人为土发育的时间趋势,在指示水耕人为土的发育程度和估算发育速率上有重要意义。有机碳(SOC)、pH、黏粒含量和磁化率(MS)在计算发生层距离(HD)中贡献很大,而土壤颜色和湿结持性在计算发生层指数(HI)中起着重要作用。RC母质的土壤,土层较厚,颜色红,黏粒含量较高,保肥和保水状况好,土粒的黏结性和可塑性较好,SOC容易累积,发育速率最快。PS母质的土壤,土层较厚,细颗粒(黏粒+细粉粒,<0.01mm)含量高,保肥和保水状况好,土粒有一定的黏结性和可塑性,SOC容易累积,发育速率次之。RS母质的土壤,黏粒和细颗粒含量均很低,土层薄,保肥和保水状况以及黏结性和可塑性差,SOC很难累积,发育速率最慢。母质对水耕人为土发育过程的影响可以通过影响其发育速率表现出来。研究同时显示,水耕人为土平均发育速率远较自然土壤快,并在人为培育下快速定向发育。但随着种稻年限的增加,水耕人为土的发育速率普遍下降,水耕人为土发育速率和成土年龄的关系大致符合对数关系。这种定量方法可以提高对水耕人为土形成过程的理解并能实现不同地区水耕人为发育速率的定量比较,有较好的使用前景。但此方法仍处于试验探讨阶段,有待更多的研究来验证和改进。
关键词:  水耕人为土  时间序列  母质  属性距离  土壤发育指数
DOI:10.11766/trxb201804120177
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41401235)和气象灾害预测预警与应急管理研究中心开放基金项目(ZHYJ16-YB03)
Numerical Comparison between Hydragric Anthrosols of Different Parent Materials in Development in Hill Regions of South China
HAN Guangzhong1, Xie Xianjian1, Li Shanquan2
1.Neijiang Normal University;2.College of Resources and Environment
Abstract:
【Objective】How to measure development degrees of Hydragric Anthrosols is still an unsolved problem in pedogenesis. Therefore, it is essential to define indices that can be used to quantitatively evaluate developments of Hydragric Anthrosols.【Method】In this study, chronosequences of three types of Hydragric Anthrosols derived from purple sandy shale (PS), Quaternary red clay (RC) and red sandstone (RS), separately, in the hilly regions of South China were studied in an attempt to characterize development degree of Hydragric Anthrosols with attribute distance and soil development indices and to exposit effect of parent materials on development rate of Hydragric Anthrosols. Five morphological characteristics, including rubification, melanization, texture, structure and moist consistence, were cited as horizion indices (HI), while common soil properties, like pH, clay contents, free iron (Fed), soil organic carbon (SOC) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), were for horizon distance (HD) calculations.【Result】Compared with their respective original soil profiles, the paddy soil profiles generally had complicated patterns with pedogenic horizons getting more obvious with depth due to pedogenesis. Similarly, clay, SOC, pH, iron oxides and magnetic properties varied observably with cultivation history. HI is an indicator for layer difference in soil morphology and HD one for layer difference in soil property between paddy and their original soils. They can be used to measure development of individual horizons within a profile from different angles. The variations of SOC, pH, clay and MS in soil development were significantly related to HD, indicating that they played important roles in determining HD and the soils, easier to have these properties changed were often higher in developing rate. It was also quite obvious that rubification was the most closely related to HI, explaining 83.1% of the variation of HI at all depths, and followed by melanization and moist consistence, which indicated that soil color and soil consistence played important roles in determining HI in this study. Moreover, an intrinsic relationship was observed of morphological features with general soil properties in pedogenesis of Hydragric Anthrosols. As RC-derived soils were thick in soil layer, red in color, and high in clay content, in soil moisture and nutrient retention capacity, and in cohersiveness and plasticity, they were liable to have SOC accumulated and develop rapidly. As PS-derived soils were thick in soil layer, high in clay+silt (<0.10mm) content and in moisture and nutrient retention capacity, and fairly high in cohersiveness and plasticity, they were liable to have SOC accumulated too and develop quite rapidly or rank second in soil development rate. And as RS-derived soils were thin in soil layer and low in clay and silt content, in soil moisture and nutrient retention capacity and in cohersiveness and plasticity, it was hard for them to accumulate SOC or to develop fast.【Conclusion】The effects of parent material on development of Hydragric Anthrosols were reflected through their effects on development rate of the soil. All the findings show that Hydragric Anthrosols develops at a much higher average rate than natural soils do, particularly under paddy cultivation towards a set direction. But with the cultivation going on and on, development rate of the soil generally declines. The relationship between soil development rate and soil forming history or age can be fitted with a logarithmic equation. This quantification method may help improve knowledge about the soil forming process of Hydragric Anthrosols and realize quantitative comparison of Hydragric Anthrosols of different regions in development rate, and hence it may enjoy a bright future in application. However, as this method is still at its initial test stage, it needs further validation and improvement through researches.
Key words:  Hydragric Anthrosols  Chronosequence  Parent material  Pedological distance  Soil developmental index