引用本文:陶玥玥,王海候,金梅娟,施林林,董林林,陆长婴,沈明星.小麦产量与土壤养分对水生植物源有机氮替代率的响应[J].土壤学报,2019,56(1):156-164.
TAO Yueyue,WANG Haihou,JIN Meijuan,SHI Linlin,DONG Linlin,LU Changying,SHEN Mingxing.Response of Wheat Yield and Soil Nutrients to Substitution of Organic Nitrogen with Aquatic Plant Residue[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(1):156-164
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小麦产量与土壤养分对水生植物源有机氮替代率的响应
陶玥玥, 王海候, 金梅娟, 施林林, 董林林, 陆长婴, 沈明星
江苏太湖地区农业科学研究所/农业部苏州水稻土生态环境重点野外科学观测试验站
摘要:
制作堆肥是太湖流域水体水生植物残体的主要利用途径之一,本文主要研究了水生植物堆肥对小麦产量及土壤养分的影响以促进水生植物残体的高效利用。在环太湖地区进行4 a的田间定位试验,比较在等氮条件下水生植物有机氮不同替代率(0、20%、40%、60%、80%和100%)下小麦产量、氮磷钾吸收量、土壤氮磷钾含量和pH变化。结果表明:与单施尿素相比,当有机氮替代率为20%和40%时,小麦累积产量分别提高了14.0%和13.5%(P<0.05),有机氮替代率继续增加后产量显著下降。与单施尿素相比,有机氮替代率超过60%时小麦籽粒和秸秆氮浓度和吸氮量均显著降低;有机氮配施均显著提高了籽粒磷钾浓度,随着有机氮替代率上升,小麦籽粒磷钾吸收量呈先增后降趋势。连续4 a施用水生植物有机肥后,耕层土壤全氮、有效磷钾含量和土壤pH均随有机肥的替代率增加而升高。兼顾小麦产量和土壤肥力,水生植物有机氮替代率控制在40%较为适宜,可提高小麦产量,增加作物对磷钾养分利用,提高土壤氮磷钾含量,减缓土壤酸化程度,是太湖农作区一项环保型施肥技术。
关键词:  水生植物有机肥  小麦产量  养分吸收  土壤养分  土壤pH
DOI:10.11766/trxb201808130179
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300207)、江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK20170325)和苏州市农业科学院科研基金项目(8111705)资助
Response of Wheat Yield and Soil Nutrients to Substitution of Organic Nitrogen with Aquatic Plant Residue
TAO Yueyue, WANG Haihou, JIN Meijuan, SHI Linlin, DONG Linlin, LU Changying, SHEN Mingxing
Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Taihu Lake District, Key Scientific Observation & Experiment Station of Paddy Field Eco-environment, Ministry of Agriculture
Abstract:
【Objective】In order to make effective use of aquatic plants wildly growing in the Taihu Lake Valley, composting is an important way. This study is to investigate effects of using aquatic plant compost as manure on wheat yield and soil nutrient status with a view to promoting effective utilization of aquatic plant residues. 【Method】A field experiment was carried out for four years successively from 2012 to 2016 in the Taihu Lake region, preparing compost of aquatic plant residues as manure to substitute part of the N fertilizer (mineral urea) applied to a wheat field to explore effects of the substitution on wheat yield, NPK uptake, contents of soil NPK and soil pH. The field experiment was designed to have six treatments, different in substitution rate (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%), but the same in N supply. Grain yield of wheat, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake by the plant, contents of soil total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus, soil readily available potassium and soil pH value in the top soil layer were monitored. 【Result】Results show that compared to Treatment M0U100 (application of mineral urea alone), Treatments M20U80 and M40U60 (20% and 40% of mineral urea substituted by the compost, respectively) was 14.0% and 13.5%, respectively, higher in total cumulative wheat grain yield, however, the increment decreased in magnitude with the substitution rate increasing over 40%, and Treatment M60U40 was even significantly lower than Treatment M0U100 in N content in shoot and N uptake. The substitution significantly increased P and K concentrations in the grain. However, with rising substitution rate, crop uptake of P and K exhibited a trend of rising first and then declining. After four years the practice, the contents of soil total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus and potassium, and soil pH in the plough layer were all higher than in the control, showing a trend of the higher substitution rate, the more significant, the increase. 【Conclusion】In summary, to improve the grain yield of wheat meanwhile maintain the soil fertility, Treatment 40%, that is, to apply compost of aquatic plant residue as manure to substitute 40% of the mineral urea to be applied is the optimal option, which can increase yield and phosphorus and potassium utilization efficiency of the crop, and contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil, and also alleviate soil acidification. Therefore, the practice of applying mineral urea and a proper amount of compost of aquatic plant residue as substitute is an economical and environment-friendly fertilization technology in the Taihu Lake region.
Key words:  Organic manure of composted aquatic plant residue  Wheat yield  Nutrient uptake  Soil nutrients  Soil pH