引用本文:郑延云,张佳宝,谭 钧,张丛志,余正洪.不同来源腐殖质的化学组成与结构特征研究[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):386-397.
ZHENG Yanyun,ZHANG Jiabao,TAN Jun,ZANG Congzhi,YU Zhenghong.Chemical Composition and Structure of Humus Relative to Sources[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):386-397
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不同来源腐殖质的化学组成与结构特征研究
郑延云1, 张佳宝1, 谭 钧2, 张丛志1, 余正洪1
1.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所);2.北京中向利丰科技有限公司
摘要:
分析了木本泥炭与水稻土和黑土两种土壤、混合物料发酵肥和鸡粪发酵肥两种有机肥共5种样品在腐殖质含量、表面特征、元素组成和官能团结构等方面的差异,以研究木本泥炭对提升土壤有机质(SOM)和改良土壤的潜在作用。结果表明,木本泥炭腐殖质含量最高,可达862.7 g·kg-1,但其腐殖质富里酸(FA)、胡敏酸(HA)和胡敏素(Hu)组分的相对比例与2种有机肥和2种土壤的腐殖质组分存在显著差异,其腐殖质以HA为主,腐殖化程度更高,颗粒更为细小致密。木本泥炭碳含量较高,但氮含量相对较低,导致其腐殖质碳/氮(C/N)比可达100以上,远大于有机肥和土壤。同时,木本泥炭腐殖质缩合度、芳香化度和聚亚甲基化程度更高,分子结构更复杂,难以被微生物分解。然而,木本泥炭腐殖质FA和HA组分仍具有较高的氧化度和羧基含量,表明其含氧官能团还未充分降解。本研究揭示,木本泥炭对提升SOM具有较大的潜力,但在实际施用过程中,应当调节其腐殖质组分至适宜比例,适度降低其颗粒大小和聚亚甲基链,同时添加生物激发剂和保持秸秆还田,以激发微生物快速转化,平衡木本泥炭的分解。
关键词:  木本泥炭  土壤质量  土壤有机质  扫描电镜  红外光谱
DOI:10.11766/trxb201805070241
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-108)、国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300802)、国土资源部土地整治中心项目(2018-04-12)共同资助
Chemical Composition and Structure of Humus Relative to Sources
ZHENG Yanyun1, ZHANG Jiabao1, TAN Jun2, ZANG Congzhi1, YU Zhenghong1
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.View Sino International Limited Company
Abstract:
【Objective】Recently, woody peat is widely used in horticulture, facility agriculture and soil amelioration, however, little is known about chemical composition and molecule structure of the humus it contains as the main component and ability of the substance to increase soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil. Therefore, in this research, samples were collected of woody peat (WP), two types of soils (paddy soil (PS) and black soil (BS)), two kinds of organic manure (Mix fermented organic manure (MFOM) and fermented chicken manure (FCM)), for analysis of content, micromorphological features, chemical composition, molecule structure and functional group structure characteristics of humus to evaluate differences between the substances of different sources in these indices and in ability to increase SOM.【Method】Different fractions (fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA) and humin (Hu))of the humus in the samples of WP, PS, BS, MFOM and FCM were extracted for analysis of concentrations of Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), sulfur (S) and oxygen (O), micromorphological features with the aid of a scanning electron microscope, and molecule structures by means of fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR).【Result】Results show that the humus content of WP approached 862.7 g·kg-1which was 30.5~41.7 times and 4.1~5.1 times that in the soils and organic manures, respectively. The WP humus was dominated with HA, which accounted for 73.28% of the WP sample in dry weight, while the humus in PS, BS, MFOM and FCM was with Hu which accounted for less than 11.28% only of the samples in dry weight. The finding indicates that the humus in WP is more humified than that in soils or organic manure. The HA in WP was smaller in particle size than the HA and Hu in PS, BS, MFOM and FCM, which suggests that the molecules and particles on the surface of WP humus are denser in arrangement and hence lower in activity. The humus in WP, regardless of fraction was relatively high in C concentration, but lower in all the fractions in N concentration than their respective ones in PS, BS, MFOM and FCM, which led to a high, even over 100, C/N ratio, about 5~11 and 9~14 times that in the soils and organic manures, respectively. Besides, except for the HA fraction in BS, both the FA and HA fractions in WP were the lowest in H/C ratio, which suggests that the humus in WP is more condensed than that in all the others. FTIR analysis shows that the values of 2920/1 620 and 2 920/2 850 of the HA and Hu fractions in WP were much higher than that in PS, BS, MFOM and FCM, which indicates that WP humus contains more aromatic and polymethylene groups. The higher humification and condensation degrees, more compact and inert surface and more aromatic and polymethylene groups suggest that the humus in WP is more complicated in molecule structure than that in all the others, and therefore it is harder for organisms to decompose. However, according to the FTIR spectra, the FA and HA fractions of humus in WP displayed absorption peaks higher their corresponding ones in all the others at 1 720 cm-1 and 1 420 cm-1 featuring carboxyl C=O bonds. In addition, in the humus of WP, the HA fraction was higher in (S+O)/C ratio than that in all the others, although the Hu fraction was the lowest in (S+O)/C ratio, which suggests that the WP humus is still quite high in oxidation degree and that its oxygen functional groups have not yet been completely decomposed.【Conclusion】All the findings in this study demonstrate that WP is quite high in potential ability to raise SOM concentration in the soil. Therefore, when WP is applied into soil, it is essential to regulate the fractions in the humus to a proper ratio to reduce its particle size and polymethylene bonds, and meanwhile, to spike some biological activator and to incorporate straw into the soil, so as to stimulate organism inversion and balance WP decomposition.
Key words:  Woody peat  Soil quality  Soil organic matter  Scanning electron microscope  Infrared spectrometry