引用本文:李彦霈,邵明安,王 娇.蚯蚓粪施用方式及用量对土壤入渗的影响[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):331-339.
LI Yanpei,SHAO Ming’an,王 娇.Effects of Pattern and Amount of Earthworm Cast Application on Water Infiltration in Soil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):331-339
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蚯蚓粪施用方式及用量对土壤入渗的影响
李彦霈1, 邵明安1, 王 娇2
1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院;2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室
摘要:
通过室内土柱模拟试验研究蚯蚓粪施用方式及施用量对土壤水分入渗过程的影响,试验设置了3种施用量(50 g·kg-1,75 g·kg-1,100 g·kg-1)和5种施用方式(0~10 cm混施、10~20 cm混施、5~8 cm层施、10~13 cm层施、15~18 cm层施),以裸土为对照,分别测定0~180 min的土壤累积入渗量、湿润锋深度以及入渗30 min后层施条件下不同土层的土壤含水率。结果表明:不同用量蚯蚓粪混施入0~10 cm土层后均可加快湿润锋迁移速率,但在10~20 cm混施方式下,75 g·kg-1和100 g·kg-1用量会抑制湿润锋的下移;当蚯蚓粪以层施方式加入土壤时,75 g·kg-1和100 g·kg-1用量处理的湿润锋迁移速率明显减小,且湿润锋深度随施用量的增加而减小;10~20 cm混施蚯蚓粪处理的累积入渗量小于0~10 cm混施处理,而75 g·kg-1和100 g·kg-1蚯蚓粪施用于5~8 cm和10~13 cm深度时也可明显减小累积入渗量,但100 g·kg-1蚯蚓粪层施时则对入渗过程无显著影响;用Kostiakov模型拟合土壤入渗过程得出,施加75 g·kg-1和100 g·kg-1蚯蚓粪均能够增加初始入渗率,10~13 cm和15~18 cm层施蚯蚓粪则对入渗率的减小具有延缓作用;层施50 g·kg-1蚯蚓粪能够提高下层土壤含水量,但层施75 g·kg-1和100 g·kg-1蚯蚓粪则会使下层土壤含水量降低。
关键词:  蚯蚓粪  施用量  土壤含水量  土柱模拟试验  塿土
DOI:10.11766/trxb201807250261
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41571130081)资助
Effects of Pattern and Amount of Earthworm Cast Application on Water Infiltration in Soil
LI Yanpei1, SHAO Ming’an1, 王 娇2
1.College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University;2.Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】Earthworms are one of the most common soil animals, and generate cast that forms water stable aggregates rich in organic matter. As is known to all, earthworm cast has already been extensively used as organic manure in farmland, because it can promote solubility of the insoluble minerals and increase nutrient elements in the soil. Then how and how much earthworm cast is applied will no doubt affect spatial distribution of the cast in the soil, and little has been reported on impacts of earthworm cast application on soil water dynamics. Therefore in this study, an indoor experiment using simulated soil columns was carried out to explore effects of pattern and rate of the application of earthworm cast on water infiltration in soil.【Method】The experiment was designed to have treatments for earthworm cast application rate, i.e. 50 g·kg-1, 75 g·kg-1 and 100 g·kg-1 and five treatments for application pattern i.e. A: mix cast with soil in the 0~10cm soil layer of the column; B: mix cast with soil in the 10~20 cm soil layer; C: mix cast with soil in the 5~8 cm soil layer; D: mix cast with soil in the 10~13 cm soil layer; and E: mix cast with soil in the 15~18 cm soil layered. So the experiment had 15 treatments (3x5) plus a control (no cast applied) for comparison, and each treatment had 3 replicates. A given amount of water was added to start water infiltration in all the 48 columns. The process of water infiltration lasted 180 minutes. Wetting front movement was recorded and accumulated infiltration calculated for analysis of differences between the treatments. In addition, samples of the soil were collected from each column by layer at the end of the infiltration for analysis of water content.【Result】Results show that the treatments of 50 g·kg-1 earthworm cast had wetting fronts going deeper than all the others or 4.1 cm deeper to the maximum. Compared with Control group, all the Treatments A, regardless of cast application rate, had wetting front going deeper, and the wetting front was found to be 1, 1 and 0.3 cm deeper in Treatment A50, A75 and A100, respectively, than in Control at the end of the infiltration process. Among the group of Treatment B, Treatment B75 and B100 has wet front going 3% and 11% shallower than Control. When earthworm cast was applied by layer as designed in the experiment, the treatments of cast application rate, regardless of depth of the application, displayed an order of 50 > Control >75 >100 in terms of wetting front depth and the groups of Treatments 75 and 100 inhibited water infiltration, with the effect reducing with increasing application depth. Among the group of Treatments C, Treatments C75 and C100 had wetting front going 6.3% and 19.5% shallower than Control. Among the group of Treatments A, Treatment A75 and Treatment A100 did not differ much from Control in cumulative infiltration, while among the group of Treatment B, Treatment B50, B75 and B100 was 8.2, 7.6 and 11.8 mm respectively, lower than Control, and among the group of Treatments C, Treatment C75 and C100 was 70.7 and 59.7 mm respectively lower than Control (74.2 mm) (P<0.05) at the end of the infiltration. The Kostiakov infiltration model was adopted to fit temporal variation of the measured cumulative infiltration, with determination coefficient R2 ranging from 0.996 to 0.999, which indicates that the fitting is good. In the experiment, water content in the soil-cast mixed layer and the soil layer right underneath increased correspondingly, but with cast application rate being beyond 75 g·kg-1, water content in the deep soil layer (16~20 cm) might decrease.【Conclusion】It can be concluded that the impact of cast application on water infiltration may vary with pattern and rate of the application. The application of 50 g·kg-1 earthworm cast in the 0~10 cm soil layer promotes downward movement of the wetting front while the application of 100 g·kg-1 earthworm cast in the 10~20 cm soil layer significantly inhibits movement of the wetting front depth. The application of cast in layers reduces cumulative infiltration and hence alters soil water redistribution.
Key words:  Earthworm cast  Applying amount  Soil water content  Soil column simulated experiments  Lou soil