引用本文:蔡祖聪.我国设施栽培养分管理中待解的科学和技术问题[J].土壤学报,2019,56(1):36-43.
CAI Zucong.Scientific and Technological Issues of Nutrient Management under Greenhouse Cultivation in China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(1):36-43
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我国设施栽培养分管理中待解的科学和技术问题
蔡祖聪
南京师范大学地科院
摘要:
我国设施栽培迅速发展为保障城乡居民蔬菜和瓜果供应、增加农民收入发挥了极为重要的作用,但是,由于不合理施肥,土壤酸化、次生盐渍化、养分失衡、氮、磷、钾、硫元素过量积累等土壤快速退化现象极为普遍,正在严重威胁设施栽培的可持续发展。相关科学研究严重滞后于生产发展水平,设施栽培养分管理中还存在诸多科学问题亟待解决。本文探讨了设施栽培中确定养分合理施用量、判断土壤养分供应是否平衡、评价养分环境效应和去除土壤中过量积累的养分等方面尚待解决的科学问题。认为我国亟需组织力量,系统地研究在设施栽培特殊的小气候、土壤水分运移、作物生长和养分吸收特点以及高复种指数下,土壤养分转化规律,水、土、气和作物之间的相互作用机理及其对土壤养分有效性的影响,尽速改变科学研究滞后于生产实际的现状。
关键词:  设施栽培  养分施用量  养分平衡  环境效应  退化土壤修复
DOI:10.11766/trxb201805310286
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0200600)
Scientific and Technological Issues of Nutrient Management under Greenhouse Cultivation in China
Cai Zucong
Nanjing Normal University
Abstract:
Rapid development of greenhouse cultivations has made substantial contributions to meeting the increasing demands of the urban and suburban resident population for vegetable and fruits and to improving farmers’ economic status in China in the past four decades. However, due to inappropriate applications of nutrients, phenomena of soil degradation, like acidification, secondary salinization, nutrient unbalance, and unusual accumulations of N, P, K, and S appear commonly in the soils under greenhouse only a short time after setting up of the greenhouse, seriously affecting sustainable development of the greenhouse farming in China. As scientific researches in this aspect lag far behind the rapid developments of the greenhouse cultivation, nutrient management of greenhouse cultivation encounters a series of scientific and technological problems that call for urgent solution. In the paper, issues, like how to determine appropriate nutrient application rates for greenhouse cultivations, how to judge whether the soil nutrient supply, including macro-, medium-, and micro-elements, is in balance, how to evaluate environmental impacts of the nutrient management in greenhouse cultivation, and how to remove unusual surpluses of nutrients in the greenhouse soils, particularly sulfur, which is usually applied with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, are discussed. It is held that it is essential and urgent to organize forces to launch system researches on the micrometeorology, soil water movement, growth and nutrient uptake of crops, and soil nutrient transformation in greenhouses with high multiple cropping index, particularly mechanisms of the interactions between water, soil, air and crops and their effects on soil nutrient availability, so as to alter the status of scientific researches lagging behind the production practices as quick as possible.
Key words:  Greenhouse cultivation  Nutrient application rates  Nutrient balance  Environmental impacts  Remediation of degraded soils