引用本文:张 红,曹莹菲,徐温新,吕家珑.植物秸秆腐解特性与微生物群落变化的响应[J].土壤学报,2019,56(6):1482-1492. DOI:10.11766/trxb201810210315
ZHANG Hong,CAO Yingfei,XU Wenxin,LÜ Jialong.Decomposition of Plant Straws and Accompanying Variation of Microbial Communities[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(6):1482-1492. DOI:10.11766/trxb201810210315
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植物秸秆腐解特性与微生物群落变化的响应
张 红, 曹莹菲, 徐温新, 吕家珑
西北农林科技大学资源环境学院
摘要:
采用网袋法探讨不同新鲜秸秆在农田土壤的腐解特征,结合Biolog微平板技术,对不同秸秆处理中土壤微生物群落多样性进行了研究。结果表明,随着腐解时间的增加,新鲜秸秆的残留率波动不大,秸秆的腐解速度为玉米秸秆大于大豆秸秆。整个腐解时期,不同秸秆处理中土壤微生物群落的平均颜色变化率 AWCD 值由高到低依次为FCN(新鲜玉米秸秆+氮)、FC(新鲜玉米秸秆)、FB(新鲜大豆秸秆),说明玉米不同秸秆处理中土壤微生物群落的密度大、稳定性好,大豆秸秆处理中土壤微生物群落相对密度小,稳定性差,3种不同秸秆处理中土壤微生物的AWCD值之间没有显著差异(P>0.05),但不同秸秆类型与腐解时间的交互作用之间的差异达到极显著水平(P<0.01)。3种不同秸秆处理中土壤微生物的优势种群主要以糖类和多聚物为主,在腐解中后期难分解物质逐渐累积,均表现为对芳香化合物的利用最弱。3种秸秆的腐解残留率与土壤pH、有机质、碱解氮、速效钾、土壤温度、氨基酸、多胺类的碳源利用方面影响较大,土壤含水量和秸秆含水量的高低在一定程度上影响不同秸秆的腐解残留率。
关键词:  农田  长期试验  秸秆腐解  Biolog 法  微生物群落
基金项目:“十三五”科技部重点专项(2017YFD0200200)、陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划项目(2016KTZDNY03-01)与中国科学院黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室基金项目(A314021402-1916)
Decomposition of Plant Straws and Accompanying Variation of Microbial Communities
ZHANG Hong, CAO Yingfei, XU Wenxin, LÜ Jialong
College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University
Abstract:
【Objective】 Plant residue is an important source of soil organic matter. Returning Straw to the field is an effective way to develop sustainable organic agriculture. In this paper, characteristics of the decomposition of plant straws, soil microbial functional diversity and their relationship was studied in an attempt to lay down a scientific basis for research on transformation of organic carbon in soil and rational exploitation of land resources. 【Method】The mesh bag method was used to explore how fresh plant straws decompose in farmland soil and the biolog plate technology was adopted to determine changes in soil microbial community relative to type of the plant straw incorporated.【Result】Results show that with decomposition going on, residue rate of fresh plant straws did not vary much. Corn straw decomposedfaster than bean straw. In terms of mean AWCD (the average well colour development ) of soil microbial communities, a declining order of FCN (Fresh corn straw + nitrogen fertilizer) > FC (Fresh corn straw) >FB (Fresh bean straw), indicating that the soil microbial community in the soil applied with corn straw was relatively high in density and stability, while that in the soil applied with bean straw was lower during the whole decomposition period. No significant difference in microbial AWCD was found between the three treatments (P>0.05), but sharp differences were between treatments different in types of straw and in duration of decomposition (P<0.01). Analysis of effects of microbial community structures on utilization efficiency of the six categories of carbon sources indicates that the predominant populations in the three treatments fed mainly on saccharides and polymers. When decomposition went on, hard-to-decompose substances gradually accumulated in the middle and later stages of the decomposition, showing that the populations were the weakest in utilization of aroma compounds. Polymers could reduce structure stability of the microbial community and affect residual rate of the straws under decomposition. Correlation analysis shows that decomposition residual rate was significantly related to soil pH, organic matter, alkalyic N, readily available K, soil temperature, the utilization of carbon sources, like amino acids and polyamines, and by a certain degree to soil water content and water content of straw. 【Conclusion】FCN with a proper C/N ratio is susceptible to impact of more factors than FB and FC, when decomposing in the field. Therefore, in the practice of returning straw in the field, it is recommended to adjust C/N ratio of the straw incorporated to a proper degree and to apply microbial agents that are capable of degrading the metabolites of polymers, so as to promote decomposition of the straws incorporated and improve utilization rate of the straws returned.
Key words:  Farmland  Long term experiment  Straw decomposition  Biolog  Microbial community