引用本文:王兵爽,李淑君,张舒桓,徐 昊,徐国华,任丽轩.西瓜根系分泌酸性磷酸酶对有机肥营养的响应[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):454-465.
WANG Bingshuang,LI Shujun,ZHANG Shuhuan,XU Hao,XU Guohua,REN Lixuan.Responses of Acid Phosphatase Secreted by Watermelon Roots to Organic Manure Nutrition[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):454-465
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西瓜根系分泌酸性磷酸酶对有机肥营养的响应
王兵爽,李淑君,张舒桓,徐 昊,徐国华,任丽轩
南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/农业部长江中下游植物营养与肥料重点实验室/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/农业部长江中下游植物营养与肥料重点实验室/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/农业部长江中下游植物营养与肥料重点实验室/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/农业部长江中下游植物营养与肥料重点实验室/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/农业部长江中下游植物营养与肥料重点实验室/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心,南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/农业部长江中下游植物营养与肥料重点实验室/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心
摘要:
有机肥营养对西瓜品质具有提升效果,但根系对有机肥中养分的吸收机制尚不完全清楚,尤其对磷素的利用机制。本研究关注西瓜根系分泌酸性磷酸酶活性对有机肥施用的响应。采用模拟西瓜根系分泌物的方法研究有机酸对有机肥中可溶性全磷和有效磷含量的影响;采用砂培的方法,研究有机肥中的磷替代化肥磷时西瓜根系分泌酸性磷酸酶活性的响应;采用田间试验研究有机肥替代化肥以及有机肥不同施用量对西瓜根际酸性磷酸酶活性、西瓜磷营养、产量和品质的影响。结果表明,有机肥中水浸提可溶性全磷含量为6.9 g·kg-1,可溶性无机磷含量为525.1 mg·kg-1,可溶性全磷中无机磷占7.6%,有机磷占92.4%,可溶性有机磷需经过水解后才能被根系吸收。有机肥磷替代化肥磷时,西瓜根系和根际土壤酸性磷酸酶活性均显著提高,西瓜茎、叶中磷含量提高。施用三倍有机肥时西瓜根际土壤有效磷含量和西瓜产量提高。因此,有机肥中磷替代化肥磷时,西瓜通过提高根系分泌酸性磷酸酶的活性而提高利用有机磷的能力。
关键词:  有机肥  可溶性全磷  可溶性无机磷  有效磷  酸性磷酸酶  根系
DOI:10.11766/trxb201807090318
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200106)和江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK20151432)资助
Responses of Acid Phosphatase Secreted by Watermelon Roots to Organic Manure Nutrition
WANG Bingshuang,LI Shujun,ZHANG Shuhuan,XU Hao,XU Guohua and REN Lixuan
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences /Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Low-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture /Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,College of Resources and Environmental Sciences /Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Low-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture /Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,College of Resources and Environmental Sciences /Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Low-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture /Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,College of Resources and Environmental Sciences /Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Low-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture /Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,College of Resources and Environmental Sciences /Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Low-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture /Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University,College of Resources and Environmental Sciences /Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Low-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture /Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University
Abstract:
【Objective】 About 30%~ 65% of the total P in soil is present in the form of organic P, mainly like phospholipids, phytate, and nucleic acids, which are not readily available to plant root. However, organic P would release, through hydrolysis, phosphate ions which are available to plant root. Phosphatase is an important enzyme to hydrolyze organic P to phosphate. Furthermore, nutrients in organic manure are important to higher watermelon quality, but the mechanism of how watermelon root absorbs soil P is not clear. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate forms and quantity of the phosphorus nutrient supplied by organic manure; (2) validate whether the organic acids secreted from watermelon root influence availability of the P in organic manure; and (3) demonstrate responses of the acid phosphatase secreted by watermelon root to organic manure application. 【Method】 The analogy method was adopted to determine contents of water soluble total P and inorganic P in organic manure, as well as impacts of the organic acids secreted from watermelon root on concentrations of soluble total phosphorus and inorganic phosphorus in organic manure. A sand culture experiment was conducted to explore responses of the acid phosphatase in activity to substitution of chemical fertilizer P with organic manure P. In addition, a field experiment was carried out to investigate effects of the replacement and application rate of organic manure on acid phosphatase activity in rhizosphere soil, content of available P in rhizosphere soil, and phosphorus nutrition, yield and quality of the watermelon. 【Result】 Results show the organic manure used in the experiment contained 6.9 g·kg-1 soluble total phosphorus and 525.1 mg·kg-1 soluble inorganic phosphorus. Of the soluble total phosphorus 7.6% was inorganic P and 92.4% organic P. Organic phosphorus could not be absorbed by root until it is hydrolyzed. Organic acids, either citric acid, malic acid or succinic acid, secreted from watermelon root increased soluble total P content, but did not influence the content of inorganic P in the organic manure. Citric acid, low or high, increased the content of soluble total P significantly or by 78.9% and 223.6%, respectively, while high concentration of malic acid and succinic acid did by 151.5% and 112.8%, respectively, in the organic manure. But high concentrations of citric acid and succinic acid did reversely. Substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic manure lowered the accumulation of dry matter in watermelon. Activity of the acid phosphatase in the rhizosphere of watermelon root was significantly enhanced when chemical fertilizer P was replaced by organic manure P. And root/shoot ratio of the plant was improved by the substitution. The field experiment demonstrates that the application of organic manure (6 t·hm-2) to replace chemical fertilizer did not affect yield of the crop. The application of organic manure at 18 t·hm-2, triple the replacement rate, significantly increased yield of the crop, and the application of organic manure at 6 t·hm-2 or 12 t·hm-2, double of the former, both improved the activity of acid phosphatase in the rhizosphere. However the application at 18 t·hm-2 did not affect much the activity, nevertheless it did increase the content of available P in the rhizosphere soil at the mature stage of the crop. 【Conclusion】 The organic manure does contain a small amount of soluble inorganic P, available directly to root for absorption, but most of the soluble P is organic P, hard to be absorbed by root before is hydrolyzed. The organic acids secreted from watermelon root improve soluble total P in content, but not soluble inorganic P. However, the soluble organic P increased by the organic acids secreted by watermelon root is still not available for absorption before it is hydrolyzed. The substitution of chemical fertilizer P with organic manure P enhances the activity of acid phosphatase secreted watermelon root and the capability of the crop of utilizing organic P. Acid phosphatase is higher in activity in the treatment applied with organic manure than in the treatment applied with chemical fertilizer, equivalent to the former in P application rate. However, excessive application of organic manure does not further enhance its effect on activity of acid phosphatase. Application of organic manure at a higher rate increases the content of available P in rhizosphere soil and hence P absorption and watermelon yield.
Key words:  Organic manure  Soluble total phosphorus  Soluble inorganic phosphorus  Available phosphorus  Acid phosphatase  Root