引用本文:窦 森.秸秆“富集深还”新模式及工程技术[J].土壤学报,2019,56(3):553-560.
DOU Sen.New engineering technology of straw enrichment and deep burial(SEDB) in subsoil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(3):553-560
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秸秆“富集深还”新模式及工程技术
窦 森
吉林农业大学资源与环境学院
摘要:
针对长期浅耕造成的土壤亚表层缺乏有机质和过于紧实以及目前秸秆还田成本高或效果差的实际问题,本文提出了一种简单而有效的快速松土培肥的秸秆还田新模式及相应机具创新和田间工程技术。该技术模式是基于优先快速培肥土壤亚表层的新理念,在条带轮耕深松土壤的同时,将秸秆富集深埋于指定条带的土壤亚表层。我们把这种秸秆还田新模式称为秸秆富集深埋还田(简称“富集深还”)。该模式的主要工程技术是发明研制了秸秆深还筒式犁新机具,通过机械化手段将秸秆富集、粉碎、埋入土壤。具体步骤包括:(1)用指盘式搂草机将玉米秸秆按4:1~8:1富集归行;(2)用秸秆还田筒式犁一体机将秸秆粉碎、风力注入指定条带土壤20-40cm;(3)用免耕播种机在非埋秸秆条带正常免耕播种,实现种还分离,即种植条带(窄行)与埋秸秆条带(宽行)分离。该模式具有秸秆翻压还田与覆盖还田的优点,而克服二者各自的缺点,是秸秆还田与条带少免耕的完美结合,能够实现玉米秸秆连年、机械化全量还田,且不打乱土层顺序、不影响第二年种植。秸秆富集深埋还田,理念新颖,技术可行,对土壤尤其是亚表层有很好的培肥效果。有助于彻底解决秸秆还田成本高或效果差的瓶颈问题,为旱田秸秆田间处理与深厚肥沃耕层构建提供机切实可行的械化工程手段。
关键词:  秸秆还田  秸秆富集  秸秆深还  工程技术  筒式犁  风力注入  条带轮耕  种还分离
DOI:10.11766/trxb201806190331
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“黑土结构障碍对养分利用的制约机制与调控途径” ( 2016YFD0200304);国家973计划“土壤有机质转化累积机制与促进提高途径(2011CB100503)”;吉林省秸秆综合利用平台秸秆肥料化方向“秸秆富集深还技术与土壤亚表层培肥机理研究(2014 C–1)”;吉林省重点科技项目“农田合理耕层创建及土壤亚表层培肥技术(20130206018NY)”;吉林省委财经办项目“秸秆富集深还技术研究(20131210)”等课题资助。
New engineering technology of straw enrichment and deep burial(SEDB) in subsoil
DOU Sen
College of Resource and Environmental Science, Jilin Agricultural University,
Abstract:
There are three main patterns of straw returning to the field in China: shallow incorporation, surface mulching and, turnover straw with moldboard plow. The shallow incorporation generally causes too much arge pore in the soil while surface mulching will lead to the decrease of ground temperature and the increase of diseases and insect pests in some areas; due to the inability to break the bottom layer of the plough, the effect on lifting the soil organic matter content of the whole soil layer (especially the subsurface layer) is limited. Turnover straw with Moldboard plow consumes more power and charge expenses; in addition to soil layers turnover, the practice induces yield reduction in some areas, and a complexity to manage soil on the following year due to the undercover of undecomposed straw.【Objective】In view of the handicaps caused by long-term shallow tillage, such as the lack of organic matter in the subsurface layer of soil, over-compaction, and the high cost or poor effect of straw return to the field, this paper proposes a simple and effective new pattern of straw returning and the corresponding machine innovation and field engineering technology. The purpose of this engineering technology consist into resolving the bottleneck problem of high cost or poor effect of straw returning to the field, also to provide mechanization means for the straw treatment of upland field and the construction of fertile plough layer.【Method】This technical model is based on the new concept of prioritizing soil subsurface fertilized layer and the enriched straw buried in the soil subsurface layer of the designated belt where strip tillage loosing soil. This new technique is called straw enrichment and deep burial(SEDB).The main engineering technology of this model is the invention of a new straw deep return cylinder plough which can enrich, crush and bury the straw into the soil by means of mechanization. The specific steps include:(1) enrich the corn straw by 4:1~8:1 with the finger-plate rake;(2) the corn straw is buried into the 20~40 cm depth of subsoil in the designated strip with wind-driven injection cylinder plough; (3) the non-buried straw belt is seeded with the no-tillage planter in a normal way to realize the separation of seed planting belt (narrow rows) from straw strip (wide rows) in wide-narrow rows cultivation mode.【Result】This model has the advantages of moldboard plow and mulching of straw. However, it overcomes the disadvantages of both. It is the perfect combination of straw returning to the field and strip minimum tillage. The corn straw, being fully mechnized, can be returned to the field along with each agricultural campaign, without disrupting the sequence of soil layers and affecting the planting in the next year.【Conclusion】The concept of straw enrichment and deep burying is novel and the technology is feasible which has a positive effect on improving soil fertility especially subsoil fertility.
Key words:  Straw incorporation  Straw enrichment  Straw deep burial  Engineering technology  Cylinder plough  Wind injection  Strip tillage  Separation of planting from straw belt.