引用本文:李肖肖,朱凤武,许桃元,姚新春,余 漫,陈 浮.苏南农田土壤性状和水稻长势对土地整治的 短期响应[J].土壤学报,2019,56(3):571-581. DOI:10.11766/trxb201806190334
LI Xiaoxiao,ZHU Fengwu,XU Taoyuan,YAO Xinchun,YU Man,CHEN Fu.Short Term Response of Soil Properties and Rice Growth to Land Consolidation in South of Jiangsu Province[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(3):571-581. DOI:10.11766/trxb201806190334
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苏南农田土壤性状和水稻长势对土地整治的 短期响应
李肖肖,朱凤武,许桃元,姚新春,余 漫,陈 浮
1.中国矿业大学环境与测绘学院;2.自然资源部海岸带开发与保护重点实验室,江苏省土地勘测规划院
摘要:
土地整治作为一项增加耕地数量、改善农田基础设施、提高粮食产能的重要手段,全国已广泛开展。苏南平原农田整治中坑塘填埋、田块平整等十分普遍,这为土壤环境带来极大风险,但目前对农田整治中短期生态干扰仍缺乏关注。本研究借助遥感和田间调查,对土壤性状和水稻归一化植被指数开展了监测,研究土地整治对土壤及水稻生长的短期干扰及其相互关系。结果表明:短期内平整造成表层土壤有机质、全氮和有效锌含量显著下降,有效硅则相反,有效磷和速效钾变化不显著。不同平整类型区土壤养分差异明显,由高到底依次为未动工区、填方区、坑塘填埋区和挖方区;土地整治后,水稻归一化植被指数(NDVI)呈现明显的异质性,NDVI值由高到底依次为未动工区0.834、填方区0.808、坑塘填埋区0.763和挖方区0.747;土地整治区水稻NDVI值与有机质、全氮和有效锌含量存在极显著相关关系,R2分别为0.656、0.617和0.625。土地平整引起的有机质、全氮和有效锌空间变异是导致水稻NDVI异质性的主要因素,土地整治对土壤和水稻长势造成了短期干扰,应当培肥土壤与强化管护,实现由数量、产能为主整治向生态型整治转变。
关键词:  土地整治  土壤质量  水稻长势  NDVI  短期干扰
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划(2015BAD06B02)和江苏省国土资源厅科技项目(2016KJ008)共同资助
Short Term Response of Soil Properties and Rice Growth to Land Consolidation in South of Jiangsu Province
LI Xiaoxiao1, ZHU Fengwu2, XU Taoyuan2, YAO Xinchun2, YU Man3, CHEN Fu3
1.School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics;2.Key Laboratory of the Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection, Ministry of Natural Resources, Institute of Land Surveying and Planning of Jiangsu;3.School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology
Abstract:
【Objective】As an important means to increase the area of cultivated land, improve farmland infrastructure and raise grain production capacity, land consolidation (merging and leveling) has been widely extrapolalted throughout the country. Land consolidation is often accompanied by landfilling of ponds and pits and field leveling in the Plain of South Jiangsu, which are thought to pose a big risk of disturbing the soil environment. However, so far little attention has been paid to the potential short-term effect of farmland consolidation disturbing soil ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the short-term effect of land leveling relative to area on rice growth and specify soil factors that might affect the growth of rice in a short period of time after land consolidation, in an attempt to provide reference for monitoring soil quality, improving soil fertility and managing the ecology after land consolidation. 【Method】In this study, soil properties and rice NDVI were monitored via remote sensing and field surveys for analysis of short-term effects of land consolidation on soil and rice growth and their relationships, in Gengzhuang Village, Zhixi Town, Jintan District of Changzhou City. With the help of the engineering drawings of the land consolidation projects, remote sensing images, and field surveys, areas of waterbody filling (WF), topsoil cutting (TC), land filling (BT), and undistrubed land (U), were worked out, separately. Field monitoring of soil properties and rice growth in the first growing season in farmlands different in leveling degree. Topsoil samples were collected at 43 sampling sites, including 6 in Waterbody filling area, 15 in topsoil cutting areas, 16 in borrowed topsoil areas, and 6 undisturbed land areas, for analysis of certain basic physical and chemical indices, such as soil texture, pH, organic matter, total N, readily available phosphorus, readily available K, and available Zn and available Si that have important influence on rice growth to determine soil nutrient status of the farmlands. Rice growth was monitored by means of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which was extracted from the GeoEye remote sensing images of the areas. 【Result】Effects of land consolidation on soil properties and rice growth were monitored via remote sensing and field investigation, Result show:(1) Land leveling seriously affected nutrient status of the topsoil layer, by decreasing the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available zinc significantly within a short period of time after the leveling, however, it increased the content of available silicon and had little impact on available phosphorus and available potassium. Soil nutrient status varied sharply with type of land consolidation, showing an order of U > BT > FW > TC; (2) NDVI of rice also varied with type of land consolidation, being 0.763 for WF, 0.747 for TC, 0.808 for BT and 0.834 for U and displaying an order of Unworked > BT > FW > TC. (3) NDVI of rice growth was significantly and positively related to contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available zinc,with coefficient of determination being 0.656, 0.617, and 0.625, respectively. 【Conclusion】Spatial variations of the contents of soli organic matter, total nitrogen and available zinc caused by land leveling are the main factors leading to rice NDVI heterogeneity. Land consolidation has serious short-term effects on soil and crop growth. Fertilization to build up the soil and management and protection of the ecology should be adopted to realize the transformation from quantity-and-productivity-based land consolidation to ecology- based one.
Key words:  Land consolidation  Soil quality  Rice growth  NDVI  Short-term disturbance