引用本文:杨 波,王文龙,郭明明,康宏亮,刘春春,陈卓鑫,王文鑫,赵 满.矿区排土场边坡不同植被配置模式的控蚀效益研究[J].土壤学报,2019,56(6):1347-1358. DOI:10.11766/trxb201806260346
YANG Bo,WANG Wenlong,GUO Mingming,KANG Hongliang,LIU Chunchun,CHEN Zhuoxin,WANG Wenxin,ZHAO Man.Erosion-controlling Effects of Revegetation on Slope of Refuse Dump in Mining Area Relative to Vegetation Pattern[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(6):1347-1358. DOI:10.11766/trxb201806260346
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矿区排土场边坡不同植被配置模式的控蚀效益研究
杨 波1, 王文龙1, 郭明明1, 康宏亮1, 刘春春2, 陈卓鑫1, 王文鑫1, 赵 满1
1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室;2.西北大学城市与环境学院
摘要:
为研究不同植被配置模式对露天煤矿排土场边坡径流产沙的影响。以内蒙古永利煤矿恢复4 a的排土场边坡为研究对象,采用原位放水冲刷试验方法。以裸坡(BS)为对照,研究了递增型放水流量(5-10-15-20 L•min-1)条件下内蒙古永利煤矿排土场边坡不同植被配置模式(上坡冰草(面积占比30%)+下坡沙蒿(70%),C3H7;上坡冰草(70%)+下坡沙蒿(30%),C7H3;冰草,QC;冰草和沙棘混合配置,CG)的减水减沙效益。结果表明:(1)流量递增初期(0~9 min),径流率与侵蚀速率急剧增大,后波动减小。随着放水流量的递增,坡面径流率随产流历时的延长呈阶梯式增长,相对于首次放水流量(5 L•min-1)冲刷时,流量增大至10、15、20 L•min-1防护坡面与未防护径流率差异缩小。侵蚀速率随放水流量的变化较径流率的变化趋势减小,且后期较大流量下,坡面侵蚀速率有下降趋势;(2)C3H7、C7H3、QC、CG配置模式坡面的减水和减沙效益分别为31.99%、18.72%、15.29%、34.36%和81.28%、87.29%、84.80%、58.73%。“冰草-沙棘(CG)”配置坡面和“冰草-沙蒿(C7H3)”配置坡面分别具有最优的减水效益和减沙效益;(3)坡面不同根系植被混合搭配时的减水减沙效益高于单一根系植被防护坡面,直根系与须根系植被合理配置具有更好的防护效果;(4)各坡面侵蚀速率和径流率呈极显著的幂函数(BS、C3H7、QC、CG)和线性(C7H3)关系。(5)坡面各植被配置模式在该区能较好地抵御持续暴雨径流的冲刷袭击。研究结果可为矿区合理进行生态恢复提供依据。
关键词:  植被配置模式  排土场边坡  原位放水冲刷  径流率  侵蚀速率  减水减沙
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501604)、科技基础性专项(2014FY21010)、国家自然科学基金项目(40771127,41761062)
Erosion-controlling Effects of Revegetation on Slope of Refuse Dump in Mining Area Relative to Vegetation Pattern
YANG Bo1, WANG Wenlong1, GUO Mingming1, KANG Hongliang1, LIU Chunchun2, CHEN Zhuoxin1, WANG Wenxin1, ZHAO Man1
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau , Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F Universtiy;2.College of Urban and Environmental Sciences,Northwest University
Abstract:
【Objective】 In order to study effects of revegetation varying in pattern controlling runoff and sediment yield on slopes of refuse dumps in opencast coal mining fields, a field experiment was conducted on the slope of a refuse dump in the Yongli Coal Mining Area, Inner Mongolia. 【Method】 Five plots different in vegetation pattern were selected on the slope that had been revegetated for four years for the experiment using in-site scouring method. The five plots included Plot C3H7 (Agropyron planted on the upper slope accounting for 30% in area plus Artemisia desertorum on the lower slope accounting for 70% in area), Plot C7H3 (Agropyron planted on the upper slope accounting for 70% in area plus Artemisia desertorum on the lower slope accounting for 30% in area), Plot QC (Agropyron planted on the whole slope), Plot CG (Agropyron mixed with Artemisia desertorum in plantation) and Plot BS (Bare slope) as control, all being 8×1 m in area and 38°in slope gradient. Water flowed down on the top of the slopes or plots at a gradually increasing rate (5-10-15-20 L•min-1). During the flow scouring events, runoff flow velocity was monitored with the dye tracing method. In the first 6 minutes of runoff, samples of runoff were collected once every minute, and afterwards once every 3 minutes for analysis of sediment content, using the oven-drying ied weighing method. 【Result】 (1) At the initial stage of the increase (0~9 min) in flow rate, runoff rate and erosion rate increased sharply, and follow-up-fluctuation decreased. When the flow increased, runoff rate on the slope increased stepwise with the duration of runoff prolonging. Compared to the initial flow at a rate (5 L•min-1), the flow increasing to 10, 15 and 20 L•min-1 made the difference in runoff rate between protected surface and unprotected surface narrower. Meanwhile,the variation of erosion rate with the variation of flow rate was lower in magnitude than that of the variation of runoff rate, and the erosion rate tended to decline in the late phase of the scouring test even when the flow rate was quite high; (2) In Plot C3H7, C7H3, QC and CG, runoff was reduced by 31.99%, 18.72%, 15.29% and 34.36% and sediment was by 81.28%, 87.29%, 84.80% and 58.73%. Plot CG (mixed Agropyron-Hippophae)” and C7H3 (70% Agropyron Hippophae – 30% Artemisia desertorum) was obviously the most effective pattern of vegetation for controlling runoff and sediment yield, respectively; (3) Agropyron Hippophae and Artemisia desertorum are different in root system, i.e. taperoot system and fibrous root system. The vegetation formed of or properly arranged with mixed plants different in root system has better soil and water conserving effects than the one formed of only a type of plant does; (4) In all the slopes, regardless of vegetation pattern, erosion rate and runoff rate formed an extremely significant power function and linear (C7H3) relationship. And (5) Vegetations of all patterns in this experiment had certain functions to resist scouring erosion caused by continuous heavy storms. 【Conclusion】 All the findings in this experiment may serve as scientific a basis for reasonable ecological restoration in the mining area.
Key words:  Vegetation pattern  Dump slope  In-situ flow scouring  Runoff rate  Erosion rate  Runoff and sediment reduction