引用本文:朱晓艳,沈重阳,陈国炜,张 伟,李保国,王 钢.土壤细菌趋化性研究进展[J].土壤学报,2019,56(2):259-275.
ZHU Xiaoyan,SHEN Chongyang,CHEN GuoweI,ZHANG Wei,LI Baoguo,WANG Gang.Advancement in Research on Bacterial Chemotaxis in Soil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(2):259-275
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土壤细菌趋化性研究进展
朱晓艳,沈重阳,陈国炜,张伟,李保国,王钢
中国农业大学,中国农业大学,合肥工业大学,密西根州立大学,植物、土壤与微生物学系,中国农业大学,中国农业大学
摘要:
土壤是地球生态系统中最具生命活性的组成部分,特有的孔隙结构承载着生物圈中最丰富多样的微生物生命形态,为动植物提供了大量的调控功能。土壤是一个不断演变和发展的生态系统,而微生物是土壤生态系统的核心,也是驱动碳、氮等元素以及能量循环的关键因子。趋化性是细菌在长期进化过程中形成的帮助其寻找食物或趋利避害的本能,结合其他的内在生理特征,细菌能够迅速适应动态变化的环境。营养物、异源污染物和水分条件等的不均匀分布致使土壤中细菌趋化现象普遍存在,并且时刻影响土壤微生物的群落组成及其时空分布。近年来,土壤细菌趋化性已成为国内外土壤微生物学研究的热点和重点。本文分析了土壤细菌趋化性研究的前沿问题和主要进展,阐述了细菌趋化行为模式、趋化信号传导通路和趋化性数学模型,探讨了土壤中普遍存在的细菌趋化现象及相关的主要研究技术手段(荧光原位杂交技术、微流控技术和光学显微技术),并对土壤细菌趋化性研究的发展趋势进行了展望,旨在为今后的相关研究和实际应用提供参考。
关键词:  土壤多孔异质性  细菌趋化性  微流控技术  荧光原位杂交技术  光学显微技术
DOI:10.11766/trxb201807210385
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发专项(2016YFD0200306)、国家自然科学基金项目(41877412)和国家千人计划青年项目(2016)
Advancement in Research on Bacterial Chemotaxis in Soil
zhuxiaoyan,SHEN Chongyang,CHEN Guowe,ZHANG Wei,libaoguo and WANG Gang
China Agricultural University,China Agricultural University,Hefei University of Technology,Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University,China Agricultural University,China Agricultural University
Abstract:
In the geoecosystem, soil is an important component, the highest in vitality, because of its unique pore structure, which accommodates numerous micro lives, the highest in abundance and diversity in the biosphere, and plays numerous regulatory and provisional functions essential to life. Soil is a steadily evolving and developing ecosystem. The microorganisms therein are at the core of the soil ecological functions that drive the key biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and other elements. Evolving systems of the soil microbes enable them to adapt themselves rapidly to any dynamic changes in local environment. Chemotaxis is an instinct bacteria have acquired through long-term evolution to help them hunt for food or move along nutrient gradients or away from toxicants. Heterogeneous distribution of nutrients, exogenous contaminants, and water is the main factor triggering bacterial chemotaxis everywhere in soil, which in turn always affect configuration of soil microbial community and its spatial and temporal distributions. In recent years, bacterial chemotaxis in soil has become a hot spot of focus of the study on soil microbiology both at home and abroad and this trend is likely to continue in the near future. In this review, attempts were done to summarize frontier issues and advancement of the researches the world over on soil bacterial chemotaxis, to elucidate modes of bacterial chemotactic behaviors, conduction paths of bacterial chemotactic signals, and mathematical models for bacterial chemotaxis, with a particular focus on soil bacterial chemotaxis, to explore phenomena of bacterial chemotaxis existing universally in the soil and to introduce main technical means involved in the research, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, microfluidics and microscopy. In the end, prospects are presented of the trend and development of the research in a view to providing certain references for researches to and practical application of the study on microbial chemotaxis in future.
Key words:  Soil pore heterogeneity  Bacterial chemotaxis  Microfluidics  Fluorescence in situ hybridization  Optical microscopy