引用本文:陈 雪,翟 欣,杨振智,符德龙,潘金华,徐胜祥,王美艳,史学正.特制酒糟有机肥对喀斯特烟区烤烟生长与品质的影响[J].土壤学报,2019,56(5):1151-1160.
CHEN Xue,ZHAI Xin,YANG Zhenzhi,FU Delong,PAN Jinhua,XU Shengxiang,WANG Meiyan,SHI Xuezheng.Effects of Specialized Vinasse Organic Manure on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco in Karst Area[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(5):1151-1160
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特制酒糟有机肥对喀斯特烟区烤烟生长与品质的影响
陈 雪1, 翟 欣1, 杨振智2, 符德龙1, 潘金华3, 徐胜祥3, 王美艳3, 史学正3
1.贵州省烟草公司毕节市公司;2.贵州毕节市烟草公司金沙公司;3.中国科学院南京土壤研究所
摘要:
为研究适合贵州喀斯特地区烤烟生产的特制酒糟有机肥用量,通过大田小区分析并比较了不同类型和用量的特制酒糟有机肥措施:常规酒糟有机肥3 t•hm-2(CK)、特制酒糟有机肥3 t•hm-2(T1)、特制酒糟有机肥3.6 t•hm-2(T2)、特制酒糟有机肥3.6 t•hm-2+钾肥300 kg•hm-2(T3)、特制酒糟有机肥1 t•hm-2+化肥2 t•hm-2(T4)对烤烟生态及产质量的影响。结果表明,与对照相比,从烤烟生态来看,T1、T2及T4处理均不同程度增加烤烟株高、茎围及叶面积指标;T1、T2、T3处理的根鲜重、根干重及根体积均较CK有所增加,T4处理的各项根际指标均显著高于CK;T1、T2处理的黑胫病发病率较CK降低49.8%,T1、T3、T4处理的气候斑点病发病率分别较CK降低62.5%、37.5%及25%,T2、T3、T4处理的花叶病均未发现。添加特制酒糟有机肥处理中T4产量最高,达到1 623 kg•hm-2,T2处理为1 434 kg•hm-2,T1~T4处理的增产率为10.4%~25.0%;所有试验处理的烟碱、全氮、总糖、还原糖、磷、钾、氯离子含量均处于优质烟叶适宜范围,其中,施用特制酒糟有机肥能降低烟碱、全氮含量,提高磷、钾离子含量,使烤烟内在品质渐趋合理。
关键词:  喀斯特  黄壤  特制酒糟  有机肥  烤烟生态  产质量
DOI:10.11766/trxb201807250395
分类号:
基金项目:贵州省烟草公司毕节市公司科技专项(省市院合2015-06)和中国烟草总公司贵州省公司科技项目(201703)
Effects of Specialized Vinasse Organic Manure on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco in Karst Area
CHEN Xue1, ZHAI Xin1, YANG Zhenzhi2, FU Delong1, PAN Jinhua3, XU Shengxiang3, WANG Meiyan3, SHI Xuezheng3
1.Bijie Branch Company, Guizhou Tobacco Company;2.Jiasha Branch Company of Bijie, Guizhou Tobacco Company;3.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】This study was trying to find out a proper application rate of specialized vinasse organic manure for flue-cured tobacco in Guizhou karst area.【Method】A field experiment was designed and laid out to have 5 treatments. i.e. CK (3 t•hm-2 of conventional vinasse organic manure), T1 (3 t•hm-2 of specialized vinasse organic manure), T2 (3.6 t•hm-2 of specialized vinasse organic manure), T3 (3.6 t•hm-2 of specialized vinasse organic manure, + 300 kg•hm-2 of potassium fertilizer, and T4 (1 t•hm-2 of specialized vinasse organic manure + 2 t•hm-2 of chemical fertilizer), and carried out for analysis and comparison of effects of the five treatments on ecology and yield of flue-cured tobacco.【Result】Results show that compared with CK, Treatments T1, T2 and T4 improved the crop in plant height, stem circumference and leaf area to a varying degree; Treatments T1, T2 and T3 did in root fresh weight, root dry weight and root volume; Treatment T4 increased rhizosphere indexes significantly;Treatment T1 and T2 reduced the incidence of black mites by 49.8%; Treatment T1, T3 and T4 lowered the incidence of climate spot disease by 62.5%, 37.5%, and 25%, respectively; and Treatment T2, T3 and T4 got free of mosaic disease. In terms of production of flue-cured tobacco, Treatment T4 was the highest in yield and followed by Treatment T1 and T2, reaching 1623 kg•hm-2 and 1434 kg•hm-2, respectively, and Treatments T1~T4 increased by 10.4%~25.0% over CK. The contents of nicotine, total nitrogen, total sugar, reducing sugar, phosphorus, potassium and chloride ions in tobacco leaves of all the tested treatments varied within the suitable range of high-quality tobacco leaves. Application of specialized vinasse organic manure reduced the content of nicotine, total nitrogen and phosphorus, and kept the potassium ion content in a proper range that made internal quality of the flue-cured tobacco gradually reasonable. 【Conclusion】In summary, the use of the specialized vinasse organic manure in addition to chemical fertilizer can improve growth and development as well as quality of the flue-cured tobacco.
Key words:  Karst  Yellow soil  Special vinasse  Organic manure  Flue-cured tobacco ecology  Yield and quality