引用本文:张 萌,魏全全,肖厚军,赵 欢,芶久兰.生物质炭对贵州黄壤朝天椒减氮的生物效应及氮肥利用率的影响[J].土壤学报,2019,56(5):1201-1209.
ZHANG Meng,WEI Quanquan,XIAO Houjun,ZHAO Huan,GOU Jiulan.Biological Effects of Biochar on Nitrogen Fertilizer Reduction and Nitrogen Fertilizer Utilization Effciency of Pod Pepper in Yellow Soil of Guizhou[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(5):1201-1209
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生物质炭对贵州黄壤朝天椒减氮的生物效应及氮肥利用率的影响
张 萌, 魏全全, 肖厚军, 赵 欢, 芶久兰
贵州省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所
摘要:
为探究生物质炭对贵州黄壤朝天椒减氮的施用效果,采用大田试验,研究了生物质炭与氮肥减量配施(CF100B0(化肥氮100%)、CF90B10(化肥氮90%+生物质炭氮10%)、CF85B15(化肥氮85%+生物质炭氮15%)、CF80B20(化肥氮80%+生物质炭氮20%))对贵州黄壤朝天椒产量、品质、养分积累和氮肥利用率的影响。结果表明:与常规施肥(CF100B0)处理相比,CF90B10处理可提高朝天椒产量,其中鲜椒增产7.3%、干椒增产2.5%,但是增产效果并不显著,而CF85B15和CF80B20处理的产量略有降低;生物质炭与氮肥减量配施处理可显著影响朝天椒果实中的硝酸盐和Vc含量,其中,CF90B10、CF85B15和CF80B20处理的硝酸盐含量降低了4.8%~8.9%,而CF90B10处理的Vc含量则较CF100B0处理提高了9.6%,但还原糖和游离氨基酸含量在各处理间无差异;此外,与CF100B0处理相比,生物质炭与氮肥减量配施可使氮肥偏生产力(PFPN)提高2.08~2.62 kg·kg-1,以CF90B10处理最高,而氮肥农学效率(AEN)和氮肥表观利用率(REN)则随着生物质炭替代化学氮肥比例的增加呈降低趋势,以CF90B10处理的AEN和REN最高,分别为7.70 kg·kg-1和40.3%。综上,生物质炭与氮肥减量配施可有效保证贵州朝天椒稳产增效,因此,短期条件下推荐生物质炭替代化学氮肥10%作为贵州黄壤朝天椒氮肥减施替代的最适比例。
关键词:  生物质炭  减施氮肥  产量  朝天椒品质  氮肥利用率
DOI:10.11766/trxb201809260438
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31860594)、贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2016]2581号)和贵州省农业科学院院专项(黔农科院院专项[2016]025号)资助
Biological Effects of Biochar on Nitrogen Fertilizer Reduction and Nitrogen Fertilizer Utilization Effciency of Pod Pepper in Yellow Soil of Guizhou
ZHANG Meng, WEI Quanquan, XIAO Houjun, ZHAO Huan, GOU Jiulan
Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】In recent years, biochar has extensively been used as an important fertilization amendment to improve crop quality and fertilizer use efficiency, but little is applied in the yellow soil for pod pepper cultivation in Guizhou. Therefore, this paper was oriented mainly to explore effects of application of biochar on nitrogen content in pod pepper growing in yellow soil of Guizhou.【Method】A field experiment was conducted to study effects of combined application of biochar and N fertilization on yield, quality, nutrient accumulation and nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency of pod pepper. The experiment was designed to have four treatments, different in combination ratio, i.e., CF100B0 (Chemical N fertilizer 100% and Biochar 0%), CF90B10 (Chemical N fertilizer 90% and Biochar 10%), CF85B15 (Chemical N fertilizer 85% and Biochar 15%) and CF80B20 (Chemical N fertilizer 80% and Biochar 20%).【Result】Results show that compared with Treatment CF100B0, Treatment CF90B10 increased the yield of pod pepper, by 7.3% in fresh weight and by 2.5% in dry weight while Treatments CF85B15 and CF80B20 decreased the yield slightly. Combined application significantly affected the contents of nitrate and Vc in the fruit of pod pepper. The content of nitrate in the fruit decreased by 4.8%~8.9% in Treatments CF90B10, CF85B15 and CF80B20, while the content of Vc increased by 9.6% only in Treatment CF90B10. But no difference was found between the treatments in content of reducing sugar and free amino acids. In addition, the treatments, especially CF90B10, increases PFPN by 2.08~2.62 kg·kg-1, but lowered AEN and REN in a trend with rising biochar ratio, so Treatment CF90B10 was the highest in AEN and REN, being 7.7 kg·kg-1 and 40.3% respectively.【Conclusion】On the whole, the application of biochar to substitute portion of nitrogen fertilizer can effectively ensure stable yield and N utilization efficiency of pod pepper in Guizhou. The use of biochar to substitute 10% of the chemical nitrogen fertilizer is the best in biological effect and hence recommended as the most suitable formula of fertilization for pod pepper production in the yellow soil of Guizhou.
Key words:  Biochar  Nitrogen fertilizer reduction  Yield  Pod pepper quality  Nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency