引用本文:张世洁,张 刚,王德建,刘 勤,王书伟.秸秆还田配施氮肥对稻田增产及田面水氮动态变化的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(2):435-445. DOI:10.11766/trxb201810310455
ZHANG Shijie,ZHANG Gang,WANG Dejian,LIU Qin,WANG Shuwei.Effects of Straw Returning Coupled with Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Dynamics of Nitrogen in Surface Water of Paddy Field[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(2):435-445. DOI:10.11766/trxb201810310455
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秸秆还田配施氮肥对稻田增产及田面水氮动态变化的影响
张 世洁, 张 刚, 王 德建, 刘 勤, 王 书伟
中国科学院南京土壤研究所
摘要:
针对我国南方稻田氮素流失污染严重问题,为明确高产稻田秸秆还田下氮肥施用效应,采用田间试验,研究秸秆全量还田下不同氮肥用量对水稻产量及稻田田面水氮素动态变化的影响,以期为长江下游径流易发地区探寻兼顾产量与环境效益的秸秆还田配施氮肥措施。结果表明:(1)秸秆还田下配施氮肥可显著提高水稻产量,但当氮肥用量过高则增产效应降低,连续秸秆还田4年以上可以发挥秸秆部分替代氮肥的增产效应;(2)稻田田面水总氮TN、NH4+-N在每次施肥后1~2 d达到峰值,之后迅速下降至相对低浓度水平,施肥后一周内是氮素径流损失的风险期,秸秆还田可有效降低水稻生育前期稻田田面水TN浓度,但同时一定程度增大了可溶性有机氮(DON)的流失潜力;(3)秸秆还田下搭配减氮施肥(SN1)较推荐氮肥(SN2)与常规施肥(SN3)可分别减少25%、40%氮肥用量,同时可分别降低田面水中9.6%、20.8% TN含量(P <0.05),是兼顾产量与环境效益的最佳措施。因此,推荐长江中下游径流易发的水稻种植区,对秸秆长期全量还田,配施氮肥用量180~225 kg∙hm-2
关键词:  秸秆还田  氮肥  田面水氮素  水稻产量
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0800105)
Effects of Straw Returning Coupled with Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Dynamics of Nitrogen in Surface Water of Paddy Field
Zhang Shijie, Zhang Gang, Wang Dejian, Liu Qin, Wang Shuwei
Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】In view of the fact that hydrosphere pollution caused by nitrogen losses with runoff from paddy fields in South China is increasingly serious, an attempt was made to explore N losing effect and potential risks of straw returning coupled with nitrogen fertilizer application and an optimum synthetic N fertilization rate in addition to full straw return. 【Method】A field experiment was conducted to explore effects of straw incorporation coupled with N fertilizer application varying in rate on rice yield and dynamics of nitrogen in paddy surface water, and to seek for an optimum fertilizer-N application rate in addition to full straw incorporation contributive to crop yield and the environment. 【Result】Results show: (1) Compared with Treatment N2 (application of synthetic N only), Treatment SN2 (Straw return plus N application at a recommended rate, N:P:K = 240:15:60) was significantly or 22.5% higher in rice yield (P <0.05). Besides, compared with Treatment SN0 (Straw incorporation with no N applied), Treatment SN1 (Straw return plus N application at a reduced rate, N:P:K = 180:15:60), SN2 and SN3 (Straw return plus N application at a conventional rate, N:P:K = 300:15:60) was significantly or 50.1%, 60.1% and 40.8%, respectively, higher in rice yield. This study showed that straw return plus N application significantly increased rice yield, but the effect reduced when too much N fertilizer was applied. Full straw return for 4 or more years in a row could replace part of the N fertilizer applied in yield raising effect; (2) TN (total nitrogen) and NH4+-N (ammonia nitrogen) in paddy surface water peaked in concentration in 1~2 days after urea application, then declined rapidly to a relatively low level. So the week after urea application was a period full of risks of nitrogen runoff loss. Moreover, compared with Treatment N2, Treatment SN2 reduced TN concentration in paddy surface water during the period after basal and tillering fertilizer application by 2.0% (P >0.05) and 6.1% (P <0.05), respectively. Treatment SNO reached 53.7% and was obviously higher than Treatment N2, SN1, SN2 and SN3, in DON/DTN (dissolved organic nitrogen/dissolved total nitrogen) and dominated with DON in N release. Treatment SN2 was 12 higher than Treatment N2 in DON concentration. All in all, straw return could effectively decrease the concentration of TN in surface water during the earlier rice-growing stage, while increasing the potential of DON loss; and (3) Compared with Treatment SN2 and SN3, Treatment SN1could save fertilizer-N consumption by 25% and 40% and reduce TN loss by 9.6% and 20.8%, respectively, so it’s an optimal mode that takes both yield and environmental benefits into consideration. 【Conclusion】In a word, for the region in the downstreams of the Yangtze River, especially the flood and runoff prone areas, returning straw fully coupled with 180~225 kg∙hm-2 –N fertilization in paddy fields is recommended as a long-term farming practice. All the findings in this paper may provide a certain scientific basis for future researches on hydrological N losses as affected by straw return
Key words:  Straw return  Nitrogen application rate  Surface water nitrogen  Rice yield