引用本文:任圆圆,张学雷,李笑莹,孙 鹏,段金龙.河南省成土母质与土壤空间分布多样性的特征[J].土壤学报,2019,56(6):1309-1320. DOI:10.11766/trxb201810260482
REN Yuanyuan,ZHANG Xuelei,LI Xiaoying,SUN Peng,DUAN Jinlong.Diversities of Soil Forming Parent Materials and Spatial Distribution of Soils in Henan Province[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(6):1309-1320. DOI:10.11766/trxb201810260482
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河南省成土母质与土壤空间分布多样性的特征
任圆圆1, 张学雷1, 李笑莹1, 孙 鹏1, 段金龙2
1.郑州大学水利与环境学院;2.河南工业大学信息科学与工程学院
摘要:
成土母质作为土壤发育的主要形成因素,二者间的关系密切。选取河南省作为研究区,从多样性的角度运用经典的仙农熵测度方法分析成土母质和土壤要素的构成组分多样性、不同母质基础上各土壤分类级别的多样性特征,并运用改进的仙农熵公式研究5 km×5 km网格尺度下不同成土母质对土类空间分布离散程度的影响及不同成土母质和土壤的空间分布多样性特征和相关性。结果表明:(1)成土母质类型虽少,但其构成组分多样性高于土类,这与二者分类系统的分支率有关;(2) 6类母质类型中,残积、坡积物母质面积最大且发育土壤类型最为复杂;15种土壤类型与6类母质之间的关系有一对多、一对一和多对一3种类型;(3) 不同母质上发育的土类的空间分布离散性程度不同,残积、坡积物母质上分布的优势土类为粗骨土,河流冲积物和河湖相沉积物母质上的优势土类分别是潮土和砂姜黑土,洪积物和黄土与红土母质上发育较好的两种土类为黄褐土和褐土,风积物母质上仅发育了风砂土一种土类;(4)潮土和河流冲积物母质分别是是河南省面积最大、空间分布多样性值最高的土类类型和成土母质类型,且成土母质与土类空间分布多样性间存在不同程度的相关性。综上,河南省的6大类成土母质与15种土类的构成组分多样性和空间分布离散性程度存在差异,且二者的空间分布多样性间存在一定的相关性。
关键词:  成土母质  土壤  空间分布多样性  河南
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41571208)、国家自然科学青年基金项目(41701237)
Diversities of Soil Forming Parent Materials and Spatial Distribution of Soils in Henan Province
REN Yuanyuan1, ZHANG Xuelei1, LI Xiaoying1, SUN Peng1, DUAN Jinlong2
1.Zhengzhou University, School of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering;2.Henan University of Technology, College of Information Science and Engineering
Abstract:
【Objective】According to the classical Dokuchaev soil genesis theory, soil is formed under the comprehensive effect of five environmental factors, i.e. parent material, climate, biology, topography, and time, among which parent material is the very fundamental one, very closely related to soils. Researchers have made certain progresses in the study on relationships of soils with the factors, but, apart from some early preliminary studies in this aspect, few in-depth reports are found in the literature on relationships of soil parent material with soil factors from the angle of diversity. So this study selected Henan Province for a case study to explore soil elements and composition and soil classes or types in various soil classification system in relation to diversity of soil forming parent materials, effects of soil forming parent material on dispersiveness of spatial distribution of soil great groups, and characteristics and correlations of spatial distribution diversity of the two on a 5 km×5 km grid scale with the classical and modified Shannon entropy methods, in an attempt to enrich steadily the knowledge about the trend of evolvement of the research on soil diversity to that on land diversity. 【Method】Both the classical Shannon entropy formula and modified Shannon entropy formula were used to characterize the composition and spatial distribution diversities of soil forming parent materials and soils. First of all, data of soil forming parent materials were extracted from the data of soil parent materials on the soil genus level based on the soil parent material classification. And with the aid of the spatial data processing and analysis function of ArcGIS10.2 software, the soil farming parent materials in Henan Province were sorted into 6 groups. Then the richness index and composition diversity of the various parent materials and soil elements were calculated with the classical Shannon entropy formula. And number of soil types and bifurcation ratios relative to each group of parent materials and corresponding relationships of the two in occurrence were analyzed for further analysis of effects of parent material on the spatial distribution diversity of soil types with the modified Shannon entropy formula on a 5 km×5 km grid scale. In the end, spatial distribution diversities of parent materials and soils (soil group level) in Henan Province were worked out with the modified Shannon entropy formula and correlation of the two discussed.【Result】Results show that (1) although the parent materials in Henan are very limited in type, they are higher in composition diversity than the soils, which is related to bifurcation ratio of the two in classification. (2)Among the 6 types of parent materials, the type of eluvium and deluvium is the largest in area and the most complex in soil development. The richness index of soil types increases with soil classification going from group, subgroup to family in level. The 15 soil types are related to 6 types of parent materials in one to many, one to one and many to one patterns. (3)Soil types developed from different parent materials vary in dispersiveness of spatial distribution. Carbonati-Orthic Primosols is the dominant type of soil developed on eluvium and deluvium type of parent material, while Hapli aquic cambosol and Shajiang aquic vertosol are on river alluvium and lacustrine sediments, respectively. Yellow ustic argosol and Hapli ustic argosol are the two types of soils well developed on proluvium, loess and laterite types of parent materials. And sandy orthic primosol is the only one developed on the aeolian deposit type of parent material. (4)Hapli aquic cambosol and river alluvium type of parent material is the type of soil and the type of parent material the largest in area and the highest in spatial distribution diversity, respectively, in Henan Province. And soil forming parent materials and soil types are related in spatial distribution diversity to a varying extent. The relationships of the river alluvium type of parent material with Hapli aquic cambosol soil and of the aeolian deposit type of parent material with sandy orthic primosol are the highest, while the relationship of the loess and laterite type of parent material with Shajiang aquic vertosol is near nil, which is reflected in the fact that the area of soil patches common to the two is very limited nearly nothing.【Conclusion】 To sum up, viewing from the angle of diversity, the 6 types of soil forming parent materials and the 15 soil groups in Henan Province vary in composition diversity and spatial distribution dispersiveness. Moreover, the two are related in spatial distribution diversity to a varying extent.
Key words:  Soil forming parent material  Soil  Spatial distribution diversity  Henan Province