引用本文:查理思,吴克宁,庄大昌,姜 钰.河南仰韶村遗址不同功能区土壤特征研究[J].土壤学报,2020,57(2):500-507. DOI:10.11766/trxb201811290496
ZHA Lisi,WU Kening,ZHUAN Dachang,JIANG Yu.Soil Properties of The Yangshao Village Cultural Relic Site, Henan Province Relative to Function[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(2):500-507. DOI:10.11766/trxb201811290496
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河南仰韶村遗址不同功能区土壤特征研究
查理思1, 吴克宁2, 庄大昌1 , 姜 钰3
1. 广东财经大学公共管理学院;2.中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院;3.青岛市国土资源和房屋管理局崂山国土资源分局
摘要:
为全面了解仰韶文化时期古人类不同活动内容和程度,在仰韶村遗址内分别采集古人类遗址不同功能区(地基、饮食、瓮棺、陶窑)和未受到古人类活动干扰的土壤剖面(简称自然剖面)土样,进行色度、磁化率、颗粒组成、游离铁、矿质全量、土壤微形态分析,通过与自然剖面数据比较,获知古人类不同活动对土壤的影响程度。结果显示,在地基区,黏粒含量最高,CaO含量较高,P含量最高,土壤微形态显示了古人类在石灰面中加入多种不同的集料。在饮食区,土壤微形态显示炭屑含量丰富,且排列呈现一定方向。在瓮棺区,χfd为最大值,游离铁和游离度均为最大值。在陶窑区,χlf为最大值,P含量较高,土壤微形态显示经过高温煅烧。结论表明,古人类选择黏土和石灰混合铺设地面,长期居住产生大量含磷物质;古人类长期在饮食区烹煮食物,并对灰烬进行清理;瓮棺中的尸体在腐烂过程中,由于土壤动物和微生物的参与,不仅增加土壤细颗粒,还促进了土壤发育;古人类烧制陶器时,可能将生活垃圾进行燃烧,因此P富集。
关键词:  土壤特征  古人类活动  仰韶文化
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41371226)
Soil Properties of The Yangshao Village Cultural Relic Site, Henan Province Relative to Function
ZHA Lisi 1, WU Kening 2, ZHUAN Dachang1, JIANG Yu3
1. School of Public Administration, Guangdong University of Finance and Economics;2. School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences;3. Laoshan Land Resources Sub-bureau, Qingdao Municipal Land Resources &Housing Administrative Bureau,Qingdao
Abstract:
In order to fully understand contents and degrees of the various ancient human activities in the Yangshao culture period, soil samples were collected from different functional areas (housing foundation, living quarters, urn coffin, pottery kiln) and soil profile not disturbed by ancient human activities (natural profile in short) in the Yangshao Village site for analysis of chromaticity, magnetic susceptibility, particle size composition, free iron, total mineral content and soil micromorphology. By comparing the findings with the natural profile data, it was learnt how much ancient human activities affected the soil. Results show that among the four functional areas, the housing foundation area is the highest in clay content and P content and relatively higher in CaO content and had various ingredients added into the lime layer as the analysis of soil micromorphology indicates; the living quarters is the highest in content of carbon dust content, which exists along a certain direction; the urn-coffin area is the highest in χfd, and the highest in content of free iron and ionization degree of the iron; and the pottery kiln area is the highest in χlf relatively higher in content of P and has soil that had been calcinated under high temperature ion as analysis of micromorphology indicates. The conclusion shows that, ancient people chose on purpose clay and calcium carbonate sand to pave the ground. Long term residence produced a large amount of phosphorus. Ancient people cooked food, producing a lot of carbon dust in the living area. After burial of the dead with urn, decaying of the corpses facilitated growth of animals and microorganisms, which in turn helped formation of soil fine particles and soil development. In calcinating pots, they might probably used domestic waste as fuel.
Key words:  Soil characteristics  Ancient human activities  Yangshao culture