引用本文:田玉华,曾 科,尹 斌.基于不同监测方法的太湖地区稻田基蘖肥期氨排放研究[J].土壤学报,2019,56(5):1180-1189.
TIAN Yuhua,ZENG Ke,YIN Bin.Ammonia Emission Following Basal and Tillering Fertilization in Taihu Lake Region relative to Monitoring Techniques[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(5):1180-1189
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 108次   下载 76 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
基于不同监测方法的太湖地区稻田基蘖肥期氨排放研究
田玉华, 曾 科, 尹 斌
土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
稻田施用化学氮肥易产生氨挥发损失,目前我国稻田氨排放研究尚缺乏不同监测方法的同步对比研究,这影响到对稻田氨排放的科学评价以及稻田氮肥的合理施用。在太湖地区水稻基肥和分蘖肥施用后同时采用微气象学法(IHF)、密闭室抽气法和通气法对稻田氨排放进行监测研究。结果表明,采用三种方法监测的氨排放变化趋势大体一致,基肥施用后峰值出现在施肥后第3~4天,分蘖肥施用后峰值出现在施肥后第2天,两次施肥后氨排放持续时间均为1周左右。基肥施用后采用微气象学法、密闭室抽气法和通气法监测的氨排放峰值分别为8.8、11.3和3.2 kg·hm-2·d-1(以N计,下同),氨排放量分别为34.6、38.2和12.9 kg·hm-2,占基肥施氮量的32.0%、35.4%和11.9%;分蘖肥施用后三种方法监测的峰值分别为12.5、7.7和5.3 kg·hm-2·d-1,氨排放量分别为26.7、16.8和11.8 kg·hm-2,占分蘖肥施氮量的33.0%、20.7%和14.6%。三种方法之间具有良好的相关性。综合基肥和分蘖肥期氨排放总量,密闭室抽气法与微气象学法结果接近,通气法低估了氨排放量。密闭室抽气法可用于监测稻田基蘖肥施用后的氨排放,须保证监测期间的换气次数及抽气流量,并确保施肥后试验区田埂保水保肥。
关键词:  微气象学法  密闭室抽气法  通气法  氨挥发  基肥  分蘖肥
DOI:10.11766/trxb201811050505
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0200104, 2016YFC0207906)资助
Ammonia Emission Following Basal and Tillering Fertilization in Taihu Lake Region relative to Monitoring Techniques
TIAN Yuhua, ZENG Ke, YIN Bin
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】 Ammonia volatilization loss is liable to occur after application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer onto paddy fields. Ammonia emitted from the fields brings about adverse effects on the air and water environment, such as smog and eutrophication. So far little has been reported about studies to compare synchronously the uses of different methods to monitor ammonia emission from paddy fields in China, which affects scientific assessment of ammonia emission from paddy fields and recommendation of rational application of nitrogen fertilizer in paddy fields. 【Method】 Ammonia emissions after basal and tillering fertilizer application were monitored simultaneously with three techniques different in monitoring principle, that is, micrometeorological mass-balance integrated horizontal flux (IHF), dynamic chamber technique and static chamber technique, during the rice growing season of 2017 in the Taihu Lake region. The IHF technique had five ammonia samplers fixed at 0.4 m, 0.8 m, 1.2 m, 1.8 m, and 2.8 m high above the floodwater surface along a pole erected in the center of circular plots (20 m in radius). The dynamic chamber technique was designed to have an air exchange rate of 17 times per minute. And the static chamber technique had the sponge in the chamber replaced daily after N fertilizer application. At the same time, NH4+-N concentration and pH in the floodwater on the surface of the paddy field was measured. 【Result】 Results show that dynamics of the daily ammonia emissions monitored with the three methods were quite consistent in feature. Ammonia emission peaked on the 3~4th day after the basal fertilization and the second day after the tillering fertilization. No significant emission was observed one week after the basal or tillering fertilizer application. In the monitoring, regardless of the methods, ammonia emission fluxes were found positively related to concentration of NH4+-N in the floodwater. The horizontal ammonia flux at 0.4 m above the surface water reached 131.0 μg·m-2·s-1the second day after the basal fertilization, and the flux at 0.8 m above the surface water reached 137.9 μg·m-2·s-1 the second day after the tillering fertilization. The horizontal ammonia flux at 2.8 m was 35.3~66.5 μg·m-2·s-1 and 20.2~39.8 μg·m-2·s-1 after the basal and the tillering fertilization respectively. Cumulative ammonia emission relative to micrometeorological technique, dynamic chamber technique and static chamber technique after the basal fertilization was measured to be 34.6 kg·hm-2, 38.2 kg·hm-2 and 12.9 kg·hm-2, accounting for 32.0%, 35.4% and 11.9% of the basal N fertilizer applied, respectively, and that after the tillering fertilization was 26.7 kg·hm-2, 16.8 kg·hm-2 and 11.8 kg·hm-2, accounting for 33.0%, 20.7% and 14.6% of the tillering N fertilizer applied, respectively. The ammonia emissions monitored with the three different methods displayed nice linear relationships between each other. The dynamic chamber method was quite approximate to the IHF method in total ammonia emission after the basal and tillering fertilizations, while the static chamber method underestimated the actual ammonia emission after the basal and tillering fertilizations, down to only 40.4% of that monitored with the IHF method, because the air exchange in the static chamber tended to be hindered. 【Conclusion】 Loss of the basal and tillering N fertilizers through ammonia emission is serious, when a large amount of nitrogen fertilizer is applied into flooded paddy fields at the time air temperature is high and nitrogen adsorption capacity of rice plant is low. The dynamic chamber method can be used to monitor ammonia emission from paddy fields after basal and tillering fertilizations. However, when the dynamic chamber method is used to monitor ammonia emission from soil-water surface after fertilization, the airflow exchange rates should be taken into account. Furthermore, after basal fertilizer is applied, the ridges of the experimental plots should be made capable of conserving water and nutrients to prevent water exchange through the ridge.
Key words:  Micrometeorological technique  Dynamic chamber technique  Static chamber technique  Ammonia volatilization  Basal fertilization  Tillering fertilization