引用本文:刘 鹏,胡文友,黄 标,刘本乐,周 怡.大气沉降对土壤和作物中重金属富集的影响及其研究进展[J].土壤学报,2019,56(5):1048-1059.
LIU Peng,HU Wenyou,HUANG Biao,LIU Benle,ZHOU Yi.Advancement in Researches on Effect of Atmospheric Deposition on Heavy Metals Accumulation in Soils and Crops[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(5):1048-1059
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大气沉降对土壤和作物中重金属富集的影响及其研究进展
刘 鹏1, 胡文友1, 黄 标1, 刘本乐1, 周 怡2
1.中国科学院南京土壤研究所;2.扬州大学环境科学与工程学院
摘要:
以我国农田土壤-作物-大气系统为研究对象,综述了近年来大气沉降中重金属的来源及时空分布规律以及大气沉降对农田土壤和作物中重金属富集的影响及其研究进展。人为活动产生的重金属进入大气后,受多种自然和人为因素及环境保护政策等综合因素的影响,导致大气沉降中的重金属具有明显的时空分异特征:从时间分异来看,大气重金属含量呈现出冬季高于其他季节,供暖期高于非供暖期的特点;从空间分异来看,工业发达地区较高,燃煤为主的城市高于其他城市,城区高于郊区及远郊地区。大气沉降不仅会使土壤重金属含量上升,也会对农作物造成直接和间接的影响。大气中的重金属会通过气孔进入作物细胞,在细胞壁、液泡中积累,当含量过高时会影响作物正常生长或引起作物重金属超标风险,不利于农业安全生产。未来的研究应将传统分析方法与空间和地统计技术、多元同位素示踪技术、数学模型模拟等多种技术手段相结合,在区域尺度和田间自然条件下开展土壤-作物-大气系统重金属循环过程的研究,为区域农田重金属污染防控和环境管理提供科学依据和决策支撑。
关键词:  农田生态系统  大气沉降  重金属  来源  时空演变
DOI:10.11766/trxb201810310538
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41877512)、江苏省生态环境厅环保科研课题(2018013)和江苏省科技厅重大科技示范项目(BE2016812)
Advancement in Researches on Effect of Atmospheric Deposition on Heavy Metals Accumulation in Soils and Crops
LIU Peng1, HU Wenyou1, HUANG Biao1, LIU Benle1, ZHOU Yi2
1.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University
Abstract:
Focusing on the farmland soil-crop-atmosphere system in China, a review is presented in this paper of sources and spatial-temporal distribution of heavy metals, impacts of heavy metals atmospheric deposition on heavy metals accumulation in soils and crops and advancement in the researches in this aspect in recent years. Once entering the atmosphere, heavy metals would start to go back to the land in the form of atmospheric deposition, in which the heavy metals display a clear feature of spatio-temporal variation as affected comprehensively by a variety of natural and anthropogenic factors and environmental protection policies. In terms of temporal variation, heavy metals concentrations in the atmosphere are higher in winter than in the other seasons, and in the heating period than in the non-heating period, while in terms of spatial variation, they are higher in well-developed industrial areas than in the other areas, in cities based mainly on coal as fuel than in the other cities and in urban areas than in suburbs. Atmospheric deposition not only increases the contents of heavy metals in the soil, but also have certain direct and indirect impacts on crops. Heavy metals in the atmosphere enter the plant cells through stomata and accumulate in cell walls and vacuoles. Once accumulating to a certain level, the heavy metals would affect normal growth of the crop and/or bring about the risk of heavy metals overproof in crops, which is a hazard to agricultural safety production. In future studies, it is advisable to integrate traditional analytic methords with modern technologies, like spatial and geostatistical analysis, multiple isotope tracing, mathematical modeling and so on, in exploring heavy metals recylcing processes in the soil-crop-atmospheric system on a reginal scale under natural field conditions so as to provide a scientific basis for regional prevention and control of heavy metal pollution of farmland soils, for environment mnagement and for decision-making in these fields.
Key words:  Agroecosystem  Atmospheric deposition  Heavy metal  Sources  Spatial-temporal variation