引用本文:代 快,李江舟,张立猛,计思贵,龙怀玉,徐照丽,段玉琪,杨宇虹,卢秀萍,焦永鸽,卜令铎.20年持续施钾对烤烟/油菜轮作土壤钾素Q/I关系的影响[J].土壤学报,2019,56(6):1401-1413. DOI:10.11766/trxb201811200543
DAI Kuai,LI Jiangzhou,ZHANG Limeng,JI Sigui,LONG Huaiyu,XU Zhaoli,DUAN Yuqi,YANG Yuhong,LU Xiuping,JIAO Yongge,BU Lingduo.Effects of 20 Consecutive Years of Potassium Application on Soil Potassium Quantity-Intensity(Q/I)Relationship in Flue-cured Tobacco-rape Rotation System[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(6):1401-1413. DOI:10.11766/trxb201811200543
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20年持续施钾对烤烟/油菜轮作土壤钾素Q/I关系的影响
代 快1, 李江舟1, 张立猛1, 计思贵1, 龙怀玉2, 徐照丽3, 段玉琪3, 杨宇虹3, 卢秀萍3, 焦永鸽1, 卜令铎1
1.云南省烟草公司玉溪市公司/烟草行业病虫害生物防治工程研究中心;2.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所;3.云南省烟草农业科学研究院
摘要:
研究长期施钾下烤烟/油菜轮作土壤钾素供应能力变化特征及其机制,为农田合理施用钾肥和农业土壤发生发育的研究提供科学依据。烤烟/油菜轮作下选取连续20 a烤烟季施钾量0、187.5和375 kg·hm-2 处理,测算其土壤钾素表观平衡(Kab )以及土壤钾素容量和强度关系曲线(Q/I曲线)的土壤钾素平衡活度比(ARe)、土壤活性钾(KL)、非专性活性钾(-ΔK0)、专性活性钾(Kx)、土壤钾位缓冲容量(PBC)、K+与Ca2++Mg2+交换自由能(-ΔG)等参数,以及速效钾(Kav)、缓效钾(Knex)、K+饱和度(KS)、黏土矿物组分等土壤性质,分析Q/I曲线参数变化及其与土壤理化性质变化之间的关系。结果表明,经过20 a定位试验后,ARe在0.38×10-3 ~8.91×10-3 (mol·L-10.5 之间,-ΔK0在0.02~0.55 cmol·kg-1 之间,KL在1.61~2.16 cmol·kg-1 之间,KX在1.06~2.14 cmol·kg-1 之间,PBC在6.20~7.76 cmol·kg-1 (mol·L-1)-0.5之间,-ΔG在11.70~19.72 kJ·mol-1之间。持续施钾土壤的ARe、-ΔK0较不施钾土壤显著增大,KL、KX、PBC、-ΔG较不施钾土壤显著减小。ARe、-ΔK0与Kav、Knex、KS、Kab呈极显著正相关,KL、KX、PBC、-ΔG与Kav、Knex、KS、Kab呈极显著负相关。土壤钾素Q/I曲线参数彼此之间显著相关。上述指标可被整合成一个主成分指标,不施钾肥土壤的主成分指标值显著大于施钾肥土壤。施钾肥土壤的活性钾主要保持在黏土矿物晶体的契形边缘点位,植物有效性较高,不施钾肥土壤的活性钾主要保持在黏土矿物晶体的层间点位,植物有效性降低。不施钾肥土壤的蛭石含量高于施钾土壤,而伊利石含量小于施钾土壤。综上,土壤钾素Q/I参数ARe、-ΔK0、KL、KX、PBC和-ΔG可作为土壤供钾能力指标,土壤钾素表观平衡驱动了土壤钾素Q/I曲线形状与参数分异、土壤供钾能力分异及土壤黏土矿物变化,施钾肥量越大、土壤钾素盈余越大,土壤供钾能力越强。长期钾素亏缺下,矿物钾转化为专性活性钾的速率大于专性活性钾释放成非专性活性钾的速率。长期钾素亏缺导致伊利石向蛭石转化。
关键词:  烤烟/油菜轮作  长期施钾定位实验  山原红壤  钾素Q/I关系  供钾能力
基金项目:中国科协青年人才托举工程项目(2016QNRC001)和中国烟草总公司云南省公司科技计划重点项目(2018530000241018)资助
Effects of 20 Consecutive Years of Potassium Application on Soil Potassium Quantity-Intensity(Q/I)Relationship in Flue-cured Tobacco-rape Rotation System
DAI Kuai1, LI Jiangzhou1, ZHANG Limeng1, JI Sigui1, LONG Huaiyu2, XU Zhaoli3, DUAN Yuqi3, YANG Yuhong3, LU Xiuping3, JIAO Yongge1, BU Lingduo1
1.Yunnan Tobacco Company Yuxi Branch/Biological Control of Tobacco Diseases and Insect Pests Engineering Research Center Of China;2.Institute of Agriculture Resources and Regional Planning,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】This study was to explore effect of long-term potassium application on soil potassium supply capacity, so as to provide certain scientific basis for rationally potassium application and continuing research on development of agricultural soil.【Method】From a long term potassium fertilization experiment on a tobacco-rape rotation system, which was designed to have 0,187.5 or 375 kg·hm-2 K2O applied to flue-cured tobacco and 36 kg·hm-2 to rape, soil samples were collected for analysis of apparent balance and Quantity-Intensity (Q/I) of soil potassium, and relevant parameters, i.e. K equilibrium activity ratio (ARe), soil labile K (KL), non-specific labile K (-ΔK0) and specific labile K (KX), potential buffering capacity (PBC), K and Ca+Mg exchange free energy (-ΔG), and soil properties, like readily available K (Kav), slowly available K (Knex), K saturation degree (KS), clay minerals components and so on, and moreover, relationships between Q/I parameters and soil properties in the flue-cured tobacco-rape cropping system.【Result】 Results show that after 20 years of the stationary experiment, ARe varied in the range of 0.38×10-3~8.91×10-3(mol·L-10.5, -ΔK0 of 0.02~0.55 cmol·kg-1, KL of 1.61~2.16 cmol·kg-1, KX of 1.06-2.14 cmol·kg-1, PBC of 6.20~7.76 cmol·kg-1(mol·L-1)-0.5, and -ΔG of 11.70~19.72 kJ·mol-1. Obviously K application enhanced both ARE and -ΔK0, but reduced KL, KX, PBC, and -ΔG. Kav, Knex, KS and Kab were extre-significantly and positively correlated with ARe and -ΔK0, but negatively with KL, KX, PBC and -ΔG. Significant relationships were observed between the parameters of the Q/I curve of soil K, and these parameters could be integrated into a principal component index, which was significantly lower in K application treatments than in no K application treatments. Soil potassium was retained mainly interlaminarly in clay mineral crystals and lower in bio-availability in the soils with no K applied, but on joint position interface of the clay mineral crystals and higher in bio-availability in the soils applied with K. Hence, the soils with no K applied were higher in vermiculite content, but lower in illite content than the soils with K applied.【Conclusion】All the Q/I curve parameters, such as ARe, -ΔK0, KL, KX, PBC,-ΔG, can be used as indicators for evaluation of soil potassium supply capacity. Apparent balance of soil potassium is a major factor driving changes in K Q/I curve shape and differentiation of its parameters, variation of potassium supply capacity and evolution of soil minerals. The higher the K application rate, the higher the soil potassium surplus and the higher the soil supply capacity. In the soils under long term potassium deficiency, mineral potassium transforms into specific labile K at a higher rate than specific labile K does into non-specific labile K. Long-term potassium deficiency causes transformation of illite into vermiculite.
Key words:  Flue-cured tobacco/rape rotation  Long-term stationary experiment of potassium application  Mountain red soil  Potassium Q/I relationship  Potassium supply capacity