引用本文:杨小东,曾希柏,文 炯,王亚男,白玲玉,许望龙,苏世鸣,吴翠霞.猪粪施用量对红壤旱地理化性质及酶活性的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(3):739-749. DOI:10.11766/trxb201811230589
YANG Xiaodong,ZENG Xibai,WEN Jiong,WANG Yanan,BAI Lingyu,XU Wanglong,SU Shiming,WU Cuixia.Effects of Application of Pig Manure on Physicochemical Properties and Enzyme Activities of Red Soil Upland[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(3):739-749. DOI:10.11766/trxb201811230589
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猪粪施用量对红壤旱地理化性质及酶活性的影响
杨小东1, 曾希柏1, 文炯2, 王亚男1, 白玲玉3, 许望龙2, 苏世鸣3, 吴翠霞3
1.中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所;2.农业部岳阳农业环境科学实验站;3.中国农业科学院
摘要:
为研究猪粪的合理施用及其对红壤旱地地力提升的效应,利用在第四纪红壤旱地中连续3年分别施用0、7.5、15、30、45 t∙hm-2猪粪的小区定位试验,比较不同处理下菠菜和玉米地上部生物量、土壤相关理化性质、碳氮磷循环相关酶活性的差异。结果表明:菠菜和玉米地上部生物量、土壤有机质、土壤全量和速效态氮磷钾含量均随猪粪施用量的增加呈线性增加。当猪粪施用量达45 t∙hm-2时菠菜、玉米平均地上部生物量分别达到11.48、20.84 t∙hm-2,土壤有机质和全氮、全磷含量分别达14.6、1.07、0.73 g∙kg-1,土壤碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾含量分别达85.47、106.9、411.7 mg∙kg-1,但与猪粪施用量为15和30 t∙hm-2时土壤养分含量的差异不显著,而土壤中与碳氮磷循环相关的6种酶活性则与猪粪施用量呈线性相关,且在施用量为30或45 t∙hm-2时出现显著差异;6种酶活性与土壤有机质、养分含量间均具有显著或极显著正相关关系。研究结果显示,第四纪红壤旱地在本试验猪粪施用量范围内,土壤有机质和养分含量、酶活性等指标均随施用量的增加而相应提高,作物地上部生物量亦呈线性增加,但同时须注意土壤速效态养分含量过高可能带来的氮磷流失加剧等问题。
关键词:  猪粪  地上部生物量  微孔板荧光法  土壤理化性质  酶活性
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(41877061, 41671308)及中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目 (CAAS-ASTIP-2016-IEDA)
Effects of Application of Pig Manure on Physicochemical Properties and Enzyme Activities of Red Soil Upland
yangxiaodong1, zengxibai1, wenjiong2, wangyanan3, bailingyu3, xuwanglong2, sushiming3, wucuixia3
1.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Yueyang Agro-Environmental Sciences Station of?Chinses Agriculture Ministry;3.Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】This paper is oriented to study rational application of pig manure and its effect on soil fertility in upland red soil.【Method】A 3-year stationary field experiment on application of pig manure was carried out for the study. The experiment was designed to have 5 different application rates for pig manure, that is, 0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 t∙hm-2. Samples of the soils and the crops, i.e. spinach and maize were collected from the plots with different manure application rate for analysis biomass of the shoots, relevant soil physico-chemical properties, and activity of the enzymes involved in C, N and P recycling with the microplate flurimetric assay method. 【Result】Results shown that soil organic matter, total N, P and K, readily available P and K and biomass of spinach and maize shoots all increased linearly with increasing pig manure application rate. In the plot applied with 45 t∙hm-2 of pig manure, the highest average biomass of shoots reached 11.48 and 20.84 t∙hm-2 in spinach and maize, respectively, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus rise up to 14.6, 1.07 and 0.73 g∙kg-1 and available nitrogen, alkalyzable phosphorus and readily available potassium did up to 85.47, 106.9 and 411.7 mg∙kg-1, respectively; But there was no significant differences in soil nutrient elements contents between 15, 30 t∙hm-2 of pig manure treatments and 45 t∙hm-2 of pig manure treatment. Moreover, activities of the 6 kinds of soil enzymes involved in C, N and P cycling (β-1,4-Glucosidase, βG; β-1,4-Xylosidase, βX; Cellobiohydrolase, CBH; Leucine amino peptidase, LAP; β-1,4-N-Acetyl-glucosaminidase, NAG; Acid phosphatase, AP) were linearly related with pig manure application rate, especially in the plots applied with 30 or 45 t∙hm-2 and remarkablely or extreamly remarkablely and positively related to contents of soil organic matter and soil nutrients. In the plot applied with 45 t∙hm-2 of pig manure, βG, βX, CBH, LAP, NAG and AP enzymes reached up to 105.3, 17.49, 36.63, 47.76, 55.31 and 77.38 nmol∙g-1∙h-1, respectively. C/N did not much in plots applied with different rates of pig manure, βG/(NAG+LAP) decreased with increasing application rate of pig manure, while (NAG+LAP)/AP exhibited a reverse trend. 【Conclusion】Soil organic matter, nutrient content and enzyme activity of the soil increase with application rate of pig manure in the red upland soil, and crop yield does linearly. Attention must be paid to problems, such as increased nitrogen and phosphorus loss, as a result of excessive available nutrients in the soil.
Key words:  Pig manure  Shoot biomass  Microplate flurimetric assay method  Soil physicochemical properties  Enzyme activity