引用本文:包建平,袁根生,董方圆,李佳星,梁辰飞,徐秋芳,秦 华,陈俊辉.生物质炭与秸秆施用对红壤有机碳组分和微生物活性的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(3):721-729. DOI:10.11766/trxb201812150623
BAO Jianping,YUAN Gensheng,DONG Fangyuan,LI Jiaxing,LIANG Chenfei,XU Qiufang,QIN Hua,CHEN Junhui.Effects of Biochar Application and Straw Returning on Organic Carbon Fractionations and Microbial Activities in a Red Soil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(3):721-729. DOI:10.11766/trxb201812150623
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生物质炭与秸秆施用对红壤有机碳组分和微生物活性的影响
包建平, 袁根生, 董方圆, 李佳星, 梁辰飞, 徐秋芳, 秦华, 陈俊辉
浙江农林大学环境与资源学院,浙江省森林生态系统碳循环与固碳减排重点实验室
摘要:
采用玉米秸秆、玉米秸秆生物质炭及其两者配合施用于红壤旱地的田间试验,通过有机碳分组、微孔板荧光法及底物诱导呼吸手段,研究不施肥条件下土壤有机碳组分、土壤酶活性及微生物底物利用速率的变化。结果表明:施用9个月后,与对照(不施任何物料)相比,单施秸秆提高土壤易矿化碳含量,对pH、总有机碳含量、惰性碳含量影响较小,而生物质炭及其与秸秆配施显著提高土壤总有机碳和惰性有机碳含量。单施秸秆提高土壤β-葡萄糖苷酶活性,而生物质炭及其与秸秆配施对土壤酶活性无影响。单施秸秆提高土壤微生物对葡萄糖、天冬氨酸和丁香酸的利用速率,提高土壤基础呼吸速率,而生物质炭及其与秸秆配施对土壤呼吸和微生物底物利用速率无影响。生物质炭与秸秆配施对土壤易矿化碳组分和基础呼吸呈显著互作效应。土壤基础呼吸与易矿化碳含量、β-葡萄糖苷酶活性及葡萄糖利用速率呈显著正相关。因此,秸秆炭化相比秸秆直接施用更有利于提高土壤稳定性碳库,降低土壤碳排放。
关键词:  生物质炭  有机碳组分  土壤酶  微生物碳源利用速率
基金项目:浙江省基础公益研究计划项目(LGF18C160001)、国家级大学生创新创业训练计划项目(201810341007)和浙江农林大学学生科研训练项目(2013200031)
Effects of Biochar Application and Straw Returning on Organic Carbon Fractionations and Microbial Activities in a Red Soil
bao jian ping, yuan gen sheng, dong fang yuan, li jia xing, liang chen fei, xu qiu fang, qin hua, chen jun hui
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon cycling in Forest Ecosystems and Carbon sequestration, School of Environmental and Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University,
Abstract:
【Objective】Biochar has been considered as a promising strategy to improve soil carbon (C) sequestration and soil fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of amendment of maize stalk biochar and returning of maize stalk on soil organic carbon fractionation and microbial activities in an unfertilized field of upland red soil, in an attempt to provide certain theoretical guidance for using biochar as soil amendment to improve soil fertility and enhance soil C storage in agricultural soils. 【Method】A field experiment was carried out to investigate changes in soil organic carbon pools, activities of the enzymes involved in C, N and P cycling, and microbial substrate utilization rates as affected by amendment of biochar and/or returning of straw. The biochar used in the experiment was prepared out of maize stalk via pyrolysis at 450~500 °C near anaerobically, and amended with or without straw returned in the experiment upland field of Ferralsol low in fertility. Soil samples were collected from the experiment for analysis of soil labile and recalcitrant C fractions with the two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis method, and for soil enzyme activities and microbial substrate utilization rates with the microplate fluorimetric assay and MicroResp, respectively. 【Result】Results show that 9 months after the experiment started, soil labile C content increased in the treatment of straw returning alone, but no much changes were observed in soil pH, total organic C and recalcitrant C contents. Soil organic C and recalcitrant C increased significantly in content in the treatments of amending biochar alone or with straw returned. β-glucosidase activity was enhanced by straw returning, but not by amendment of biochar. Soil basal respiration and microbial utilization rates of glucose, asparagic acid and syringic acid were significantly increased by straw returning, but were not much affected by biochar amendment alone or in combination with straw. Significant interactions were observed between biochar and straw on labile C content and soil basal respiration rate. Significant and positive correlations were also found of soil basal respiration with labile C content, β-glucosidase activity and microbial utilization rate of glucose. 【Conclusion】To sum up, all the findings in this experiment suggest that compared with straw returning, amendment of the biochar derived from maize stalk improves soil stable C pools and reduces soil C emission.
Key words:  Biochar  Organic carbon fractions  Soil enzymes  Microbial carbon utilization rate