引用本文:张加子琦,贾燕锋,王佳楠,齐 曦,王迪晨.东北黑土区长缓复合侵蚀坡面土壤可蚀性参数特征[J].土壤学报,2020,57(3):590-599. DOI:10.11766/trxb201901280036
ZHANG Jiaziqi,JIA Yanfeng,WANG Jianan,QI Xi,WANG Dichen.Parameter Characteristics of Soil Erodibility of Long Gentle Slopes under Composite Erosion in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(3):590-599. DOI:10.11766/trxb201901280036
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东北黑土区长缓复合侵蚀坡面土壤可蚀性参数特征
张加子琦,贾燕锋,王佳楠,齐 曦,王迪晨
沈阳农业大学水利学院,辽宁省水土流失防控与生态修复重点实验室
摘要:
东北黑土区长缓坡耕地是土壤侵蚀的主要来源,土壤可蚀性是影响土壤侵蚀的重要因素。以黑龙江省克山农场典型长缓坡耕地为研究对象,在坡面上沿垄作方向从南向北选取150 m坡面,分别于2018年4月和9月测定原状土的土壤剪切力,同时取样应用Le Bissonnais法中的慢速湿润处理测定水稳性团聚体含量,计算土壤团聚体平均质量直径(MWD)、几何平均直径(GMD)和质量分形维数(D),分析黑土区长缓坡耕地的土壤可蚀性参数特征。结果表明:MWD、GMD、D、>0.2 mm土壤团聚体含量和剪切力在春季不同坡长大小顺序均表现为0m >30m >150m>60m >120 m>90m ;秋季则总体上表现为30m >0m >150m >120m >60m >90m,说明在坡中60 m、90m 、120 m处土壤抗蚀性较差,并且随着土层深度增加土壤抗蚀性增大。秋季MWD值和GMD值分别为春季的1.27倍和1.37倍,>0.2 mm土壤团聚体含量和剪切力秋季均高于春季,D值春季高于秋季,说明黑土区长缓坡面秋季土壤抗蚀性好于春季。水稳性团聚体各指标之间相关性显著,与剪切力无显著性相关。土壤水稳性团聚体可作为评价土壤可蚀性的稳定指标,剪切力评价土壤可蚀性影响程度低于水稳性团聚体指标,具有不稳定性。研究结果可以为东北黑土区长缓坡耕地复合侵蚀防治提供科学依据。
关键词:  复合侵蚀  土壤团聚体  剪切力  坡耕地  东北黑土区
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFE0202900)和国家自然科学基金项目(41201263)
Parameter Characteristics of Soil Erodibility of Long Gentle Slopes under Composite Erosion in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China
ZHANG Jiaziqi, JIA Yanfeng, WANG Jianan, QI Xi, WANG Dichen
College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion Control and Ecological Restoration in Liaoning Province
Abstract:
【Objective】Farmlands on long gentle slopes of black soil in Northeast China is the main source of soil erosion. Soil erodibility is an important factor affecting soil erosion. The soil erosion process in the black soil region of Northeast China is characterized by overlapping and/or coupling of wind-hydraulic-gravity-freeze-thaw, multiple in force and in process. In spring, freezing and thawing accompanies melting water, and temperature fluctuation and freezing and thawing are the dominant factors affecting soil properties, while in summer and autumn, water erosion is the main form of erosion and rainfall runoff and dry-wet alteration are the two leading factors. However, so far little has been reported in the literature about field experiments on soil erosion resistance in the black soil region under the multi-forced compound erosion, thus making it hard to effectively implement the task of controlling the multi-forced compound erosion. 【Method】On a typical cultivated long gentle slope in the Keshan Farm in Heilongjiang Province, a 150 m long section of the slope was delineated along the same direction as the farmland ridges go from south to north. Soil samples were collected from the 0~30 cm soil layer of the slope at sampling sites 30 m apart along the slope. Soil shearing force of undisturbed soil was determined in April and September 2018. At the same time, the collected soil samples were analyzed for content of water-stable aggregates with the Le Bissonnais method via slow-setting and mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mass fractal dimension (D) of the soil aggregates were measured in an attempt to characterize soil erodibility parameters of the long gentle slope of black soil.【Result】Results show that in terms of shearing force, MWD, GMD, D and content of >0.2 mm soil aggregates, the sampling sites exhibited a decreasing order of 0 m > 30 m > 150 m > 60 m > 120 m > 90 m in spring, and generally an order of 30 m > 0 m > 150 m > 120 m > 60 m > 90 m in fall, which indicate that the soils in the middle of the slope at 60 m, 90 m and 120 m are quite low in soil erosion resistance, and that the slope varies with posiiton of the sampling site in strength of soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition. And soil anti-erodibility increases with soil depth. MWD and GMD is 1.27 times and 1.37 times as high in fall as in spring, respectively, and the content of >0.2 mm soil aggregates and shearing force is higher in autumn than in spring, but D is in a reverse trend, which suggest that the soil erosion resistance of the long gentle slope of black soil is higher in fall than in the spring. The correlations between the indices of water-stable aggregates were significant, but they have nothing to do with shearing force. Soil water-stable aggregates can be used as a stable index to assess soil erodibility. Shearing force is not so good when used as an index for the assessment because it is not stable, which is mainly attributed to its variability with soil properties, susceptible to and complex in change, especially under the influence of freeze-thaw erosion force. As the change of soil erodibility has certain uncertainties, it calls for further in-depth studies on impacts of soil shearing force on soil erodibility on long gentle slopes of black soil in Northeast China.【Conclusion】To control soil erosion in cultivated slopes of black soil in the region, focuses should be laid on adoption of erosion controlling practices in spring, like reducing length of the slope and adopting corresponding soil and water conservation measures in the middle of the slope. Soil water-stable aggregates can be used as a stable index in assessing soil erodibility in the black soil region of Northeast China. Shear force is not so good as soil water stable aggregates when used as index. The findings of this study may be used as a scientific basis for prevention and control of compound erosion in cultivated long gentle slopes of black soil in Northeast China.
Key words:  Composite erosion  Soil aggregates  Shear force  Sloping cultivated land  Northeast black soil area