引用本文:廖启林,任静华,许伟伟,李文博,范 健,金 洋,崔晓丹,汪媛媛.田块尺度上的农田土壤Cd污染分布不均匀性[J].土壤学报,2019,56(6):1390-1400.
LIAO Qilin,REN Jinhua,XU Weiwei,LI Wenbo,FAN Jian,JINYang,CUI xiaodan,WANG Yuanyuan.Distribution Inhomogeneity of Cd Pollution of Farmland Soil on A Plot-scale[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(6):1390-1400
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田块尺度上的农田土壤Cd污染分布不均匀性
廖启林,任静华,许伟伟,李文博,范 健,金 洋,崔晓丹,汪媛媛
江苏省地质调查研究院
摘要:
长江三角洲地区存在田块尺度上农田土壤Cd污染分布不均匀的现象。相关土壤环境地球化学调查结果显示,当土壤Cd>1.0 mg.kg-1时,其田块中土壤Cd分布存在显著空间差异性。在一块面积不足0.13 hm2的田块内土壤Cd含量最大可相差几十倍,且同时存在轻度、中度、重度污染。长条状田块土壤中Cd污染分布有近似的指数衰减趋势,距离源头最近地段土壤Cd污染最严重。旱地较水田土壤中Cd污染分布更不均匀。Cd污染分布不均匀主要表现在田块的水平方向上,在田块土壤垂直方向上Cd污染主要聚集在表层20 cm以上土层。与Cd相反,Cu、Pb、Zn、As、Cr等重金属在田块土壤中则以相对均匀分布为主。微地貌的差异、人工干扰不均衡等是导致田块土壤Cd污染分布不均匀的主要原因。
关键词:  农田土壤  Cd污染  分布不均匀性  田块尺度
DOI:10.11766/trxb201902180052
分类号:
基金项目:江苏省自然科学基金面上项目(BK20171496)、江苏省科技示范工程项目(BE2015708)、江苏省土地开发整理财政专项(苏财建[2015]447)
Distribution Inhomogeneity of Cd Pollution of Farmland Soil on A Plot-scale
LIAO Qilin1, REN Jinhua2, XU Weiwei2, LI Wenbo2, FAN Jian2, JINYang2, CUI xiaodan2, WANG Yuanyuan2
1.Geological survey of Jiangsu Province;2.Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province
Abstract:
【Objective】In plain areas like the Yangtze River Delta in China, where farmlands are highly fragmented and the contradiction between limited farmland resources and a big population is outstanding, the problem of how to control heavy metal pollutions, especially Cd pollution, of farmland soil has long been an issue attracting extensive attention. The new finding of distribution inhomogeneity of Cd pollution of farmland soil on a plot-scale in the regions is of great reference value to control of the pollution and remediation of the polluted farmlands therein. Though in the literature quite a number of papers can be found systematacially exploring and discussing distribution of heavy metals and trace elements in farmland soil and inhomogeneity of the soil as well, on a plot-scale, few dealt with distribution inhomogeneity of Cd pollution. Hence, this paper is devoted to analysis of the distribution inhomogeneity of Cd pollution in farmland soil on a plot scale.【Method】In this study, a total of 42 soil samples were collected from the topsoil layers (0~20cm) and sedimentary soil profiles (0~220cm) of 5 typical tracts of farmland in the studied areas with the aid of special soil sampling tools for analysis of content distributions and geochemical indices of As Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, As, Sb,Se, pH and TOC, with the aid of ICP-MS,XRF and some others.【Result】Analysis of the environmental geochemical survey data obtained from the typical farmland soils in the Yangtze River Delta shows that when soil Cd were higher than 1.0 mg.kg-1 in concentration in a farmland plot, significant spatial inhomogeneity of Cd pollution could be observed. In a field less than 0.13 hm2, soil Cd varied sharply in concentration from plot to plot, and differed by dozens of times to the most possible, and that soils mild, moderate and severe in Cd pollution coexisted in a farmland plot. In a long strip of farmland plot, Cd pollution distributed somewhat in an exponentially declining trend. The more serious the closer to the pollutant source, and the more inhomogeneous in upland plots than in paddy plots. Distribution heterogeneity of Cd pollution mainly appeared horizontally, and vertically Cd pollution concentrated mainly in the surface toplayer (0~ 20 cm). Contrast to soil Cd, other heavy metal elements, like Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cr, and so on, were distributed normally in the farmland plot in a relatively even manner. [Conclusion] The uneven distribution of Cd pollution is universal in farmland soil on a plot-scale in the Yangtze River Delta and similar plain areas, and attributed mainly to differences in micro-topography and farming practices. The knowledge about the characteristics of Cd distribution in the soil on a plot scale is quite practical and helpful to remediation of Cd contaminated farmlands in the Yangtze River Delta and similar areas.
Key words:  Farmland soil  Cd pollution  Distribution in homogeneity  On a plot scale