引用本文:张玲玉,赵学强,李家美,沈仁芳.水稻和两种野生植物对酸性硫酸盐土耐性及矿质元素吸收[J].土壤学报,2020,57(2):403-413. DOI:10.11766/trxb201901300064
ZHANG Lingyu,ZHAO Xueqiang,LI Jiamei,SHEN Renfang.Comparison of Rice Plants with Two Wild Plants in Tolerance to Acid Sulfate Soil and Absorption of Mineral Elements[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(2):403-413. DOI:10.11766/trxb201901300064
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水稻和两种野生植物对酸性硫酸盐土耐性及矿质元素吸收
张玲玉1, 赵学强1, 李家美2, 沈仁芳1
1.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所);2.河南农业大学生命科学院
摘要:
酸性硫酸盐土是发育于还原性硫化物成土母质的一种恶劣土壤类型,虽然其分布区气候条件十分有利于水稻生长,但由于土壤条件限制,水稻生产潜力难以发挥。为筛选出适应该土壤的水稻品种,在酸性硫酸盐土(pH 3.69)上种植了240个水稻品种,但是所有水稻品种均未获得经济产量,却发现两种野生植物在该土壤中生长茂盛。经形态和分子鉴定,两种野生植物为野荸荠( Eleocharis kuroguwai)和五棱飘拂草(Fimbristylis quinquangularis)。进一步分析了水稻和两种野生植物的根际和非根际土壤性质、根部和地上部矿质元素含量。结果表明,根际土壤pH、交换性铝和有效锰含量不能解释水稻和两种野生植物耐性差异,锰毒和缺氮亦不是酸性硫酸盐土限制植物生长的关键因子,而植物地上部矿质元素含量与植物耐性差异相关。铝毒、铁毒和较低的养分(磷、钾、钙、镁)吸收是酸性硫酸盐土中水稻生长不良的主要因子。相反,两种野生植物对铝毒和铁毒的耐性较强,对养分吸收能力较强,所以生长良好。
关键词:  酸性硫酸盐土  水稻  野荸荠  五棱飘拂草  金属毒害  养分缺乏
基金项目:
Comparison of Rice Plants with Two Wild Plants in Tolerance to Acid Sulfate Soil and Absorption of Mineral Elements
ZHANG Lingyu1, ZHAO Xueqiang1, LI Jiamei2, SHEN Renfang1
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.College of Life Science,Henan Agricultural University
Abstract:
【Objective】Acid sulfate soil is a type of soil developed from the parent material of reducing sulfide and is described as “the nastiest soils in the world” because of its strong acidity and poor plant growth. Acid sulfate soils are mainly distributed along the seacoast of tropical and subtropical regions, wherein the climate is though very suitable for growth of most crops, especially rice (Oryza sativa L.) because of their abundant water and heat resources, it is very hard to bring the production potential of rice into full play, due to their poor soil properties, such as acid threats, metal toxicity and nutrient deficiency. Plants, the same in family, but different in species or variety, vary significantly in capability to adapt to stress soils. Although most crop plants cannot grow in acid sulfate soils, some native plants can do very well. The objective of this study is to screen out rice cultivars that are capable to adapt to acid sulfate soils, and further to explore their underlying mechanisms. 【Method】A total of 240 varieties of rice were planted in acid sulfate soil (pH 3.69) in Taishan City, Guangdong Province, China, and were managed as the local farmer do their crops. None met the target of economic yield. However, accidentally two species of wild plants, identified morphologically and molecularly as Eleocharis kuroguwai and Fimbristylis quinquangularis, were found growing flourishingly in the soil. During the rice harvest season, samples of the rice plants, wild plants, and their rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were collected for analysis of soil chemical properties (pH, exchangeable Al, and available Mn) and contents of 10 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Al, Fe, and Mn) in the roots and shoots. 【Result】 It was found that variation of soil chemical properties such as pH, exchangeable Al and available Mn, in rhizosphere could not explain the difference between the two wild plants and the rice plants in tolerance and that Mn toxicity and N deficiency were not the key factors that limited growth of the plants. Instead, the contents of mineral elements in the plant shoots were found to be closely related to the difference between the rice plants and the wild plants in tolerance. The rice plants accumulated more Al and Fe, but less nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in the shoots than the two wild plants. Little difference was observed in contents of most mineral elements in roots between the plants. Moreover, the Al and Fe contents in the shoot of E. kuroguwai were low, which explains its tolerance to Al and Fe toxicity through exclusion mechanism, while the Al and Fe contents in the shoot of F. quinquangularis were high, which explains its resistance to Al and Fe toxicity through internal tolerance mechanism. 【Conclusion】Al toxicity, Fe toxicity and poor nutrient uptake are the main factors leading to poor growth of rice in acid sulfate soils. In contrast, the two wild plants E. kuroguwai and F. quinquangularis can grow well in the soils thanks to their strong ability to resist Al and Fe toxicity and to take up nutrients. Mn toxicity and N deficiency may not be involved in the difference between the rice plants and the wild plants in adaptability to acid sulfate soils. It is, therefore, suggested that to improve Al and Fe tolerance and nutrient uptake are two approaches key to developing crop productivity potential in acid sulfate soils, which can be achieved through soil management and variety breeding.
Key words:  Acid sulfate soil  Rice   Eleocharis kuroguwai  Fimbristylis quinquangularis  Metal toxicity  Nutrient deficiency