引用本文:周玲红,黄 晶,王伯仁,李冬初,柳开楼,韩天富,张会民.南方酸化红壤钾素淋溶对施石灰的响应[J].土壤学报,2020,57(2):457-467. DOI:10.11766/trxb201903130071
ZHOU Linghong,HUANG Jing,WANG Boren,LI Dongchu,LIU Kailou,HAN Tianfu,ZHANG Huimin.Response of Acidifing Red Soil to Liming in Potassium Leaching in South China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(2):457-467. DOI:10.11766/trxb201903130071
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南方酸化红壤钾素淋溶对施石灰的响应
周玲红, 黄 晶, 张会民, 王伯仁, 李冬初, 柳开楼, 韩天富
中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,耕地培育技术国家工程实验室
摘要:
为探究石灰施用的长期和短期效应对酸化红壤钾素的影响,依托始于1990年的国家红壤肥力与肥料效益监测长期定位试验,选取化肥氮磷配施(NP)、氮磷钾配施(NPK)、氮磷钾配施+半量秸秆还田(NPKS)及其增加常量石灰(NPL、NPKL、NPKSL)6个处理。室内土柱淋溶试验设置0 L、0.5 L、1 L和1.5 L石灰施用量,监测田间和淋溶后0 ~ 50 cm土层速效钾和缓效钾含量、pH及淋溶液中钾离子(K+)含量的变化。结果表明:1)施用石灰4年后,与NPKS、NPK、NP相比,各处理均增加了相应土层的缓效钾含量;NPKSL和NPL处理分别增加了0 ~ 40 cm和0~10 cm速效钾含量,增幅分别为2.06 % ~ 36.39 %和27.26 %。2)石灰施用量相同,各处理土壤累积K+淋溶量由大到小依次为NPKS处理、NPK处理和NP处理。施用石灰减少了NPKS和NPK处理淋溶液中累积K+含量,降幅为18.10 % ~ 57.70 %,且K+淋溶率也下降。3)施石灰提高了表层土壤pH;土壤中钾素盈余情况下,石灰当季施用量每增加1 000 kg·hm-2,K+淋溶损失率降低11.7%;施用石灰和施肥是显著影响平均淋溶K+量和K+累积淋溶量的主效应。可见,施用石灰的短期和长期效应均能提高表层土壤pH;减少速效钾在剖面的运移,增加剖面下层缓效钾的含量;土壤淋溶K+量、累积K+淋溶量和K+淋溶率均随土壤中速效钾含量的增加而增加,随施用石灰而降低。合理的石灰用量能够有效降低酸化红壤K+淋溶损失风险。
关键词:  长期施肥  酸化红壤  钾素  石灰  长期效应  短期效应
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41671301)和中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(161032019035,161032020021)资助
Response of Acidifing Red Soil to Liming in Potassium Leaching in South China
ZHOU Linghong, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Huimin, WANG Boren, LI Dongchu, LIU Kailou, HAN Tianfu
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land
Abstract:
【Objective】To investigate long- and short-term effect of liming on soil potassium (K) in acidifying red soil, a long-term fertilization field experiment on soil fertility and fertilization effect in red soil was initiated in 1990. 【Method】The long-term field experiment was designe to have treatments, i.e. application of chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP), application of NP fertilizer plus liming (NPL), application of NPK (NPK), application of NPK plus liming (NPKL), application of NPK half of the designed rate and straw returning to make up the remaining half (NPKS), and application of NPKS plus liming (NPKSL), and four levels of liming (0 Lime, 0.5 Lime, 1Lime and 1.5 Lime). Soil samples were collected from the treatments and packed into cylinders separately for indoor soil column leaching experiment. Potassium ion (K+) in leachate and readily available potassium (AK), slow available potassium (SAK) and pH in the 0 ~ 50 cm soil layer were monitored throughout the leaching experiment . 【Result】Four years later after the initiation of the experiment, it was found that liming increased the content of SAK in the soil surface (0~10cm) and subsurface layer (0 ~ 40 cm), by 2.06% ~ 36.39% in Treatment NPKSL, and the content of AK in the 0 ~ 10 cm soil layer and the content of SAK in the 10~20cm and 40~50cm soil layers in Treatment NPL by 27.26% and 28.51%, 22.55%, respectively. In terms of K+ accumulation in leachate, the limed treatments displayed an order of NPKSLE > NPKLE > NPLE, when liming was kept at the same level. Liming reduced K+ accumulation in leachate in Treatments NPKSLE and NPKLEby 18.10% ~ 57.70% and hence K+ leaching rates, too. Liming increased soil pH in the surface soil layer. In the soil with K surplus, liming reduced K+ leaching rate by 11.7% for each 1 000 kg·hm-2 of lime applied. Apparently liming and fertilization are the main factors that significantly affect the mean leaching rate of K+ and K+ accumulation in leachate. 【Conclusion】 Obviously liming for a short or a long period of time can always increase soil pH in the surface soil layer, and retard vertical migration of AK in the profile, thus increasing the content of SAK in the lower soil layers. The amount of soil leaching K+, cumulative K+ leaching and K+ leaching rate all increase with rising AK content in the soil and with declining liming rate. Liming rationally can effectively reduce the risk of K leaching loss in acidifying red soil.
Key words:  Long-term fertilization  Acidifying red soil  Potassium  Lime  Long term effect  Short term effect