引用本文:彭文宏,牟长城,常怡慧,郝 利,姜 宁,申忠奇.东北寒温带永久冻土区森林沼泽湿地生态系统碳储量[J].土壤学报,2020,57(6):1526-1538. DOI:10.11766/trxb201910210076
PENG Wenhong,MU Changcheng,CHANG Yihui,HAO Li,JIANG Ning,SHEN Zhongqi.Carbon Storage of Forested Wetland Ecosystems in the Cold Temperate Permafrost Region, Northeast China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(6):1526-1538. DOI:10.11766/trxb201910210076
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东北寒温带永久冻土区森林沼泽湿地生态系统碳储量
彭文宏, 牟长城, 常怡慧, 郝 利, 姜 宁, 申忠奇
东北林业大学生态研究中心
摘要:
湿地在全球碳循环中具有重要作用,但目前湿地碳储量估算仍存在诸多不确定性。利用相对生长方程与碳/氮分析仪测定法,同步测定寒温带大兴安岭永久冻土区沿过渡带环境梯度依次分布的7种典型天然沼泽类型(草丛沼泽C、灌丛沼泽G、毛赤杨沼泽M、白桦沼泽B和落叶松苔草沼泽LT、落叶松藓类沼泽LX、落叶松泥炭藓沼泽LN)的生态系统碳储量(植被和土壤)、植被净初级生产力与年净固碳量,定量评价各沼泽类型的生态系统碳库及植被固碳能力,并揭示两者沿过渡带环境梯度的空间分布规律性。结果表明:(1)其植被碳储量(3.60~62.18 t•hm-2)沿过渡带环境梯度呈先上升后降低的偏态型分布趋势;(2)土壤碳储量(179.47~320.81 t•hm-2)呈森林沼泽(M除外)与灌丛沼泽显著高于C (56.4%~78.8%,P<0.05)和M (32.0%~50.9%,P<0.05)的变化规律性;(3)生态系统碳储量(183.07~347.14 t•hm-2)也呈现森林沼泽(M除外)与灌丛沼泽显著高于C (64.0%~89.6%,P<0.05)和M (28.1%~48.1%,P<0.05)的变化规律性,但森林沼泽土壤碳储量占比(82.1%~96.4%)要低于C和G (98.0%~98.3%);(4)植被净初级生产力(6.76~11.22 t•hm-2•a-1)和年净固碳量(2.97~5.37 t•hm-2•a-1)均呈现森林沼泽(LN除外)显著高于C和G (26.9%~61.4%和30.5%~66.0%;38.6%~77.2%和41.4%~80.8%,P<0.05)的变化规律性。因此,寒温带永久冻土区各类型沼泽湿地的生态系统碳储量均相对较低(仅相当于北方泥炭地碳储量(390~1 395 t•hm-2)下限值的46.9%~89.0%),且沿过渡带环境梯度总体上呈递增趋势;森林沼泽(LN除外)的植被固碳能力强于灌丛沼泽与草丛沼泽,且前者略高于全球陆地植被年均净固碳量估计值(4.1 t•hm-2•a-1),而后两者仅相当于其3/4。
关键词:  大兴安岭  沼泽湿地  多年冻土  生态系统碳储量  年净固碳量
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31370461)和国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0600803)
Carbon Storage of Forested Wetland Ecosystems in the Cold Temperate Permafrost Region, Northeast China
PENG Wenhong, MU Changcheng, CHANG Yihui, HAO Li, JIANG Ning, SHEN Zhongqi
Center for Ecological Research,Northeast Forestry University
Abstract:
【Objective】Wetlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle, but in estimating their carbon stocks, a number of uncertainties need to be settled. The aim of this paper is to quantify ecosystem carbon storage and the carbon sequestration capacity of the seven natural wetlands, and explore rules for spatial distribution of the wetlands along the environmental gradient of the permafrost transition zone.【Method】Ecosystem carbon storage (ECS=vegetation C storage and soil organic C storage), net primary productivity(NPP) and annual net carbon sequestration(ANCS) of seven kinds of typical natural wetlands (C: tussock wetland, G: shrub wetland, M: Alnus sibirica wetland, B: Betula platyphylla wetland, LT: Larix gmelinii-Carex schmidtii wetland, LX: Larix gmelinii -Moss wetland, and LN: Larix gmelinii-Sphagnum spp wetland) distributed one by one in an order along the environmental gradient of the transition zone of the Daxing’anling permafrost in the cold temperate zone were measured sychroneously by using relative growth equations and Multi N/C 3100, HT 1300 Solids Module (Analytik Jena AG, Germany).【Result】Results show: (1)VCS of the seven wetlands varied from 3.60 to 62.18 t•hm-2, exhibiting a skewing trend of rising first and then decreasing along the water environmental gradient of the transition from marsh to forest; (2)SOCS of the seven wetlands did from 179.47 to 320.81 t•hm-2, and the SOCSs of the forested wetlands(except Wetland M) and shrub wetlands were significantly or 56.4%-78.8% higher than that of Wetland C by (P<0.05) and 32.0%-50.9%(P<0.05) higher than that of Wetland M; (3)ECS of these wetlands did from 183.07 to 347.14 t•hm-2, and ECS of the forested wetlands (except Wetland M) and shrub wetlands were significantly or 64.0%-89.6% higher than that of Wetland C (P<0.05) and 28.1%-48.1% higher than that of Wetland M(P<0.05), yet the proportion of soil carbon stocks in the forested wetlands (82.1%-96.4%) was lower than that in Wetlands C and G (98.0%-98.3%); (4)NPP and ANCS of the seven wetlands did from 6.76 to 11.22 t•hm-2•a-1 and from 2.97 to 5.37 t•hm-2•a-1, respectively, and NPP and ANCS of the forested wetlands(except Wetland LN) were significantly or 26.9%-61.4% and 30.5%-66.0% higher than their respective ones of Wetland C and 38.6%-77.2% and 41.4%-80.8%(P<0.05) higher than their respective ones of Wetland G.【Conclusion】Therefore, the ECSs of all the types of wetlands in the cold temperate permafrost region were relatively low, reaching only up to 46.9%~89.0% of the bottom value of the peat land carbon reserve (390-1 395 t•hm-2) in North China, and on the whole displayed an increasing trend along the environmental gradient of the transition zone. Carbon sequestration capacity of the forested wetlands (except Wetland LN) was higher than that of the shrub wetlands and tussock wetlands. And the former was slightly higher than the estimated ANCS of the global terrestrial vegetation (4.1 t•hm-2•a-1), the latters were equal only to 3/4 of that.
Key words:  Cold temperate Daxing'anling  Forested wetlands  Permafrost region  Ecosystem carbon storage  Annual net carbon sequestration