引用本文:周 阳,黄 旭,赵海燕,郑青松,吴田乡,梁永红,刘清秀,罗朝晖,管永祥.麦秸秆和沼液配施对水稻苗期生长和土壤微生物的调控[J].土壤学报,2020,57(2):479-489. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905060077
ZHOU Yang,HUANG Xu,ZHAO Haiyan,ZHENG Qingsong,WU Tianxiang,LIANG Yonghong,LIU Qingxiu,LUO Zhaohui,GUAN Yongxiang.Regulation of Wheat Straw and Biogas Slurry Application on Rice Seedling Growth and Soil Microorganism[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(2):479-489. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905060077
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麦秸秆和沼液配施对水稻苗期生长和土壤微生物的调控
赵海燕1, 罗朝晖1, 吴田乡2, 郑青松1, 管永祥2, 梁永红3, 刘清秀1
1.南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院;2.江苏省农业技术推广总站;3.江苏省耕地质量与农业环境保护站
摘要:
研究了等量氮素肥料处理下小麦秸秆全量还田结合化肥(S-CF)、小麦秸秆全量还田结合沼液(S-BS)和全量化肥(CF)处理对水稻幼苗生长、氮磷积累及土壤微生物群落的影响。结果表明,不同施肥处理的水稻幼苗生长明显被促进,其中CF处理的促进效果最好,其次是S-BS处理。S-BS处理的水稻叶片可溶性糖含量明显高于其他施肥处理,其叶片含氮量也明显高于CF处理。CF处理的土壤细菌总量明显高于S-BS处理,而S-BS处理的土壤细菌总量均显著高于对照(CK,不施肥)和S-CF处理;其中CF处理变形菌门细菌相对丰度显著高于其他处理。而CK和S-CF处理的真菌总量明显高于S-BS和CF处理,S-BS处理的真菌总量最低,其中,CK土壤优势真菌子囊菌门、担子菌门的相对丰度显著高于其他处理,S-CF处理土壤的壶菌门真菌相对丰度也显著高于其他处理。S-CF和S-BS处理的细菌Chao1丰富度指数和香农(Shannon)多样性指数要明显高于CF处理和CK,而S-CF处理的土壤真菌的Chao1指数和香农指数要明显高于CK,CF处理的土壤真菌Chao1指数和香农指数最低。秸秆、沼液短期替代化肥的处理下水稻植株生长低于全化肥处理的,但秸秆、沼液、化肥结合施用对水稻幼苗的促生作用依然很明显,尤其是秸秆还田结合沼液灌溉的全量替代化肥处理。全量替代化肥处理下,即秸秆和沼液处理的土壤质量和细菌丰富度及多样性即使在短期施用条件下也被明显促进。
关键词:  秸秆  沼液  化肥  促生作用  土壤质量
基金项目:江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目[cx(16)1003-4]、江苏省重点研发计划项目(BE2018680)和南京农业大学SRT计划(1813C26)共同资助
Regulation of Wheat Straw and Biogas Slurry Application on Rice Seedling Growth and Soil Microorganism
ZHAO Haiyan1, LUO Zhaohui1, WU Tianxiang2, ZHENG Qingsong1, GUAN Yongxiang2, LIANG Yonghong3, LIU Qingxiu1
1.College of Resources and Environmental Science, Nanjing Agricultural University;2.Jiangsu Agricultual Technology Extension Station;3.Jiangsu Station of Agro-Environmental Monitoring and Protection
Abstract:
【Objective】The effects of straw returning and biogas liquid replacing chemical fertilizer on the growth of early rice seedlings and paddy soil quality were studied, which provided the theoretical basis for the combination of agriculture and animal husbandry with nutrient recycling. 【Method】The comparative effects of “wheat straw returning to the field combined with chemical fertilizer”(S-CF), “wheat straw returning to the field combined with biogas slurry”(S-BS) and “total fertilizer”(CF) on the growth of rice seedlings, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation, soil nutrients and microbial communities under the condition of equal amount of nitrogen application were studied in greenhouse experiment. 【Result】The growth of rice seedlings with different fertilization application treatments was obviously promoted, with the extension of treatment time, the promoting effect of fertilization treatment was more significant, among which CF treatment was the best, followed by S-BS treatment. The improvement effects of S-BS and CF on root growth were similar, which were significantly better than those of S-CF and CK. The content of soluble sugar in leaves of rice treated with S-BS was significantly higher than that of other fertilization treatments, and the content of N in leaves of rice treated with S-BS was significantly higher than that of treatment of CF. The total bacteria of CF treatment was significantly higher than that of S-BS treatment, while that of S-BS treatment was significantly higher than that of CK and S-CF treatment. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria treated with CF was significantly higher than that of other treatments. The total amount of fungi in CK and S-CF treatments was significantly higher than that in S-BS and CF treatments, and that in S-BS treatment was the lowest. The relative abundance of soil dominant Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the CK group was significantly higher than that in other treatments. The relative abundance of Chytridiomycota treated with S-CF was also significantly higher than that of other treatments. Alpha diversity analysis showed that the bacterial richness (Chao1 index) and diversity (Shannon index) of S-CF and S-BS treatments were significantly higher than those of CF treatment and CK, and the richness and diversity of soil fungi treated with S-CF was significantly higher than that of CK, and that of soil fungi treated with CF was the lowest. 【Conclusion】 Under the treatment of straw and biogas liquid as a short-term substitute for chemical fertilizer, the growth of rice plant is lower than that of the whole chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the effects of straw, biogas liquid and chemical fertilizer on the growth of rice seedlings were still very obvious, especially the total substitution chemical fertilizer treatment of straw returning to the field and irrigation with biogas liquid. The soil quality, bacterial richness and diversity of straw and biogas treatment were significantly improved even under short-term application conditions.
Key words:  Straw  Biogas slurry  Fetilizer  Growth promoting effect  Soil quality