引用本文:陈 雪,翟 欣,杨振智,符德龙,史艺杰,徐胜祥,王美艳,史学正.特制有机肥提高贵州黄壤氮矿化和硝化率的研究[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):878-886. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905310087
CHEN Xue,ZHAI Xin,YANG Zhenzhi,FU Delong,SHI Yijie,XU Shengxiang,WANG Meiyan,SHI Xuezheng.Effect of Customized Organic Manure Improving Mineralization and Nitrification of Soil N in Yellow Soil of Guizhou[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):878-886. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905310087
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特制有机肥提高贵州黄壤氮矿化和硝化率的研究
陈 雪1, 翟 欣1, 杨振智2, 符德龙1, 史艺杰3, 徐胜祥3, 王美艳3, 史学正3
1.贵州省烟草公司毕节市公司;2.贵州毕节市烟草公司金沙公司;3.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
植烟土壤中的氮素形态比例是优质烟叶生产的关键,合理施用有机肥可以调节土壤中不同形态氮素矿化水平。以贵州植烟黄壤为研究对象,采用Stanford长期好气间歇淋洗培养法,研究并模拟了不同特制有机肥施用量(0(CK),750 kg•hm-2(1F),1 500 kg•hm-2(2F),2 250 kg•hm-2 (3F))下的土壤氮素矿化过程。结果表明,供试贵州黄壤培养5 d后硝化率低于10%,后期硝态氮释放比例严重偏低,土壤在烟草旺长期能供给的硝态氮总量为66.89 mg•kg-1,不能满足烟草全生育期内的需氮情况。特制有机肥施用后土壤速效氮矿化速率均呈“前快后慢”趋势,前期矿化量高,后期矿质氮素释放减少并逐渐稳定,符合烟草生长对氮的吸收规律。特制有机肥施用显著提高了土壤速效氮矿化量,速效氮矿化量最多增长420.1%,硝态氮最多增长276.6%。添加特制有机肥显著提高了植烟黄壤硝化率,硝化率增幅范围为8.1%~50.4%。3F处理特制有机肥施用量条件下,土壤硝化率变化范围为43.69%~51.22%,最符合烟草对不同形态氮素的吸收比例,有助于提高烟株产质量。综上所述,每公顷施用2 250 kg特制有机肥最适宜贵州黄壤烟草种植。
关键词:  有机肥,烟草,氮矿化,硝化率,黄壤
基金项目:贵州省烟草公司毕节市公司科技专项(省市院合2015-06; 2018-101)和中国烟草总公司贵州省公司科技项目(201703)
Effect of Customized Organic Manure Improving Mineralization and Nitrification of Soil N in Yellow Soil of Guizhou
CHEN Xue1, ZHAI Xin1, YANG Zhenzhi2, FU Delong1, SHI Yijie3, XU Shengxiang3, WANG Meiyan3, SHI Xuezheng3
1.Bijie Tobacco Company of Guizhou Province;2.Jinsha Branch of Bijie Tobacco Company;3.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】Soil nitrogen is an important factor in producing quality tobacco leaves. About 2/3 of the nitrogen absorbed by tobacco during its whole growth period is in the form of mineralized nitrogen. So, nitrification ratio of the nitrogen in tobacco planting soil is the key to the production of high quality tobacco. Rational application of organic manure can regulate mineralization of soil N of all forms. The aim of the study is to determine a reasonable rate for application of specialized organic manure in yellow soil in Guizhou, and to improve nitrification rate in the tobacco planting soil so as to improve quality of tobacco leaves. 【Method】In this study, samples of the yellow soil collected from Guizhou were used in an incubation test with the Stanford long-term aerobic and intermittent leaching incubation method. The test was designed to have 4 treatments, i.e. CK(0 kg•hm-2), 1F (750 kg•hm-2), 2F (1500 kg•hm-2) and 3F (2250 kg•hm-2) in terms of application rate of customized organic manure, to simulate the process of soil nitrogen mineralization. And during the incubation test, a portion of each sample in each treatment was rinsed on D0, D5, D15, D30, D45 and D60, separately, for determination of nitrification ratio. Compared with common organic manure, the specialized organic manure was higher in concentration of available nitrogen, reaching up to 41.3%.【Result】Results show that the content of mineral nitrogen, regardless of form, increased with the incubation going on during the incubation period. Mineralization was dominated by nitrate nitrogen at the early stage. After 5 days of incubation, NH4+ -N turned up in dominancy. With the incubation going on, nitrate nitrogen was being mineralized. After D5, the nitrification rate of soil nitrogen in the yellow soil dropped below 10%. The proportion of nitrate nitrogen in the release of soil N was seriously lower in the late growth period. The total amount of NO3--N the soil could supply during the prime growing season of the plant reached only up to 66.89 mg•kg-1, which was far from enough to meet the demand of the crop for nitrogen throughout the growing season. Once the customized organic manure was applied, soil nitrogen mineralization showed a trend of “fast first and then slow”. So soil nitrogen mineralization was high during the initial period, and then the release of mineral nitrogen reduced and levelled off at the late stage, which is in consistence with the rule of nitrogen absorption by tobacco for its growth. The application of customized organic manure increased the content of soil readily available nitrogen through mineralization significantly or even by 420.1%, the content of NO3--N by 276.6%,and nitrification ratio 8.1% to 50.4%. In Treatment 3F (2250 kg•hm-2), soil nitrification rate ranged from 43.69% to 51.22%, which was the most conducive to quality of the tobacco. It was found that NO3--N content and total available nitrogen mineralization capacity of the organic manure increased with rising organic manure application rate. 【Conclusion】Application of the specialized organic manure at a high rate increases nitrogen supply capacity of the soil, promotes mineralization of NO3--N and improves nitrification rate. Especially when the application rate reaches up to 2 250 kg•hm-2 as is in Treatment 3F, nitrification rate in the soil increases during the tobacco growing period, which is conducive to improvement of quality of the tobacco. In the tobacco growing season, application of the specialized organic manure can ensure stable release of available nitrogen and improve the nitrification rate, which is the most suitable condition for growth of tobacco plants. In conclusion, application of 2 250 kg•hm-2 of the organic manure is the most suitable rate for tobacco cultivation in the yellow soil area of Guizhou.
Key words:  Organic fertilizer  Tobacco  Nitrogen mineralization  Nitrification rate  Yellow soil