引用本文:程 谅,秦嘉惠,张利超,曹丹妮,郝好鑫,郭忠录.应用Le Bissonnais法研究不同植被类型下红壤团聚体稳定性[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):855-866. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905090099
CHENG Liang,QIN Jiahui,ZHANG Lichao,CAO Danni,HAO Haoxin,GUO Zhonglu.Application of Le Bissonnais Method to Study Soil Aggregate Stability in Red Soils under Different Types of Vegetation[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):855-866. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905090099
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应用Le Bissonnais法研究不同植被类型下红壤团聚体稳定性
程 谅1, 秦嘉惠1, 张利超2, 曹丹妮1, 郝好鑫1, 郭忠录1
1.华中农业大学水土保持研究中心;2.江西省水土保持科学研究院
摘要:
土壤团聚体是影响土壤质量和抗侵蚀能力的关键因素之一,而植被恢复可以帮助提升土壤团聚体稳定性。以4种恢复种植5a的南方红壤区常用生态恢复和水土保持植物(马尼拉、香根草、多花木蓝、紫穗槐)为研究对象,使用Le Bissonnais法对其不同土层(0~10 cm、10~20 cm和20~30 cm)的土壤团聚体稳定性进行研究,包括3种破坏试验:快速湿润(FW)、预湿润后扰动(WS)和慢速湿润(SW)。结果表明:草本植物(马尼拉、香根草)覆盖下的土壤相较于灌木(多花木蓝、紫穗槐)具有更高的有机质含量、孔隙度以及更发达的根系,同时在3种破坏试验中,其团聚体稳定性在不同土层亦要显著高于灌木。有机质、容重、砂粒和根系等均对团聚体稳定性有显著影响,其中0.5~2 mm径级的细根系作用最为关键。FW试验中>0.25 mm团聚体含量为50.45%~79.59%,团聚体平均重量直径(MWD)为0.39~1.21 mm,皆要显著低于WS和SW试验,说明区域内土壤团聚体分解的主要机制是消散作用,FW是测定团聚体稳定性的较优方法。结果可为区域内团聚体稳定性研究以及植被恢复工作中的物种选择提供参考。
关键词:  植被恢复  土壤团聚体稳定性  Le Bissonnais法  根系性状
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41671273)
Application of Le Bissonnais Method to Study Soil Aggregate Stability in Red Soils under Different Types of Vegetation
CHENG Liang1, QIN Jiahui1, ZHANG Lichao2, CAO Danni1, HAO Haoxin1, GUO Zhonglu1
1.Research Center of Water and Soil Conservation,Huazhong Agricultural University;2.Jiangxi Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Abstract:
【Objective】Revegetation can improve stability of soil aggregates, whih are one of the key factors affecting soil quality and soil erosion resistance. In order to explore differences in aggregate stability in soils under different types of revegetation, and main mechanisms of aggregate destruction in red soil, a field experiment was carried out in the red soil region of South China. 【Method】Based on a long-term field experiment, which consisted of four plots under different typs of vegetation (Zoysia matrella, Vetiveria zizanioides, Indigofera amblyantha, and Amorpha fruticosa ) planted 5 years ago for revegetation, this experiment was oriented to explore soil aggregate stability in different soil layers (0~10 cm, 10~20 cm and 20~30 cm), with the Le Bissonnais (LB) method, including three treatments, i.e. fast wetting (FW), wet stirring (WS), and slow wetting (SW), and mechanisms of soil aggregate decomposition (dispersing, mechanical disturbing and clay swelling). 【Result】Results show: 1) the plots under Zoysia matrella and Vetiveria zizanioides were higher in organic matter content, porosity, owing to their better developed root systems, than the other two in different soil layers compared with Indigofera amblyantha and Amorpha fruticosa. The difference between the four platns was especially significant in the section of fine roots (diameter less than 2 mm), which made up the majority of the root system, accounting for 99.53%~99.81%, 98.83%~99.39%, 95.56%~98.99%, and 86.26%~94.85% in the plots under Zoysia matrella, Vetiveria zizanioides, Indigofera amblyantha, and Amorpha fruticosa, respectively; 2) in terms of mean weighted diameter (MWD) and percentage of >0.25 mm aggregates in the soils after three aggregate destructive tests, the four plots exhibited an order of Zoysia matrella > Vetiveria zizanioides > Indigofera amblyantha > Amorpha fruticosa, which suggests that the soil aggregates in the plots under herbs (Zoysia matrella and Vetiveria zizanioides) were higher in stability than the plots under shrubs (Indigofera amblyantha and Amorpha fruticosa ). It is therefore assumed that type of vegetation has a significant impact on soil aggregate stability; 3) organic matter, bulk density, sand content and root parameters all had significant influences on soil aggregate stability, especially fine roots with diameter ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm, which is key to soil aggregate stability; and 4) in terms of percentage of >0.25 mm aggregates in the plots subjected to destructive tests, an order of FW < WS < SW was observed in the plots of Zoysia matrella and Amorpha fruticosa, and one of FW < SW < WS in the plots of Vetiveria zizanioides and Indigofera amblyantha. The percentages of >0.25 mm aggregates varied in the range of 50.45%~79.59% in the four plots subjected to FW test, lower than that in the plots subjected to WS or SW tests. The MWD of soil aggregates ranged from 1.21 mm to 1.83 mm in the soils subjected to WS test and from 1.81 mm to 2.36 mm in the soils subjected to SW test, indicating the aggregates in the soils were stable ones, while it ranged from 0.39 mm to 1.21 mm in the soil subjected to FW test, much lower than that in the former two, indicating that the aggregates were unstable ones. Therefore it could be assumed that FW is the most destructive to soil aggregates and that dispersion is the primary mechanism of soil aggregate decomposition. 【Conclusion】Herbs are more effective than shrubs in improving soil structure stability, and FW test is a better method to evaluate soil aggregate stability in this region. All the findings in this experiment may serve as reference for researches on soil aggregate stability and choices of plant species selection for revegetation in this region.
Key words:  Revegetation  Soil aggregate stability  Le Bissonnais method  Root trait