引用本文:胡 琴,陈为峰,宋希亮,董元杰,刘志全.开垦年限对黄河三角洲盐碱地土壤质量的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):824-833. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905050105
HU Qin,CHEN Weifeng,SONG Xiliang,DONG Yuanjie,LIU Zhiquan.Effects of Reclamation/Cultivation on Soil Quality of Saline-alkali Soils in the Yellow River Delta[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):824-833. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905050105
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开垦年限对黄河三角洲盐碱地土壤质量的影响
胡 琴1, 陈为峰1, 宋希亮1, 董元杰1, 刘志全2
1.山东农业大学资源与环境学院;2.山东省土地整治中心
摘要:
以黄河三角洲开垦年限<5 a、10 ~ 15 a、20 ~ 25 a、30 ~ 35 a、50 ~ 60 a的小麦/玉米连作土地利用类型为研究对象,从土壤物理、化学、生物学指标出发,选取容重、有机质、全氮、有效磷、速效钾、全盐、pH、蔗糖酶、碱性磷酸酶等9个土壤质量指标,通过主成分分析,计算土壤质量综合指数(Soil Quality Index,SQI),定量评价不同开垦年限土壤质量变化过程。结果表明:土壤质量随开垦年限的增加呈增加的趋势,与未开垦荒地相比,开垦<5 a、10 ~ 15 a、20 ~ 25 a、30 ~ 35 a、50 ~ 60 a的SQI在0 ~ 20 cm和20 ~ 40 cm土层分别提高了36.70% ~ 161.49%和164.44% ~ 444.40%。SQI在不同开垦年限期间表现出不同的上升程度,与未开垦荒地相比,开垦初期(<5 a)0 ~ 20 cm和20 ~ 40 cm土层SQI分别提高了36.70%和164.44%,开垦10 ~ 15 a后,SQI较开垦初期(<5a)分别提高了38.27%和18.18%,开垦20 ~ 25 a后较10 ~ 15 a 分别提高了10.37%和39.35%,30 ~ 35 a较20 ~ 25 a分别提高了24.42%和24.79%,50 ~ 60 a较30 ~ 35 a分别提高了0.74%和0.17%。开垦<5 a、10 ~ 15 a、20 ~ 25 a、30 ~ 35 a、50 ~ 60 a的0 ~ 20 cm土层分别较20 ~ 40 cm土层 SQI提高了65.69%、93.85%、53.53%、53.08%、86.95%。表明开垦种植作物会提高黄河三角洲盐碱地土壤质量。
关键词:  黄河三角洲  主成分分析  土壤质量  开垦年限
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31570522)、山东省重大科技创新工程项目(2018CXGC0307)、山东省林业科技创新项目(LYCX03-2018-13)
Effects of Reclamation/Cultivation on Soil Quality of Saline-alkali Soils in the Yellow River Delta
HU Qin1, CHEN Weifeng1, SONG Xiliang1, DONG Yuanjie1, LIU Zhiquan2
1.College of Resources and Environment,Shangdong Agicultural;2.Shandong Province Center for Land Comprehensive Improvement and Service
Abstract:
【Objective】Soil reclamation/cultivation will sure affect soil environment of the saline-alkali soils involved and cause changes in soil quality. Therefore, it is necessary to explore or characterize changes in soil quality of the saline-alkali soils different in year of cultivation for reasonable utilization of saline-alkali soil resources.【Method】In this study, soil samples were collected, separately, from the topsoil (0~20cm) and subsoil (20~40cm) layers of farmlands, under the same wheat/maize crop rotation system, but different in year of cultivation (< 5 a, 10 ~ 15 a, 20 ~ 25 a, 30 ~ 35 a and 50 ~ 60 a), in the saline-alkali soil region of the Yellow River Delta. The samples were analyzed from the aspects of soil physics, chemistry and biology, for bulk density, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, readily available potassium, total salt, pH, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase, a total of nine soil quality indicators. On such a basis, principal component analysis was performed, SQI (Soil quality index) calculated and variation of soil quality in the farmland with years of cultivation evaluated quantitatively. 【Result】Results show that soil quality improved with cultivation going on. Compared with virgin wasteland, the farmlands cultivated for < 5 a, 10 ~ 15 a, 20 ~ 25 a, 30 ~ 35 a, and 50 ~ 60 a were 36.97% ~ 161.49% and 164.44% ~ 444.40% higher in SQI of the 0 ~ 20 cm and 20 ~ 40 cm soil layers, respectively. SQI varied in increasing rate from period to period. Compared with the virgin wasteland, the farmland increased by 36.70% and 164.44% in SQI, respectively, in the 0 ~ 20 cm and 20 ~ 40 cm soil layers during the initial period of the cultivation (<5 a) and by 38.27% and 18.18% during the period of 10 ~ 15a of cultivation; by 10.37% and 39.35% during the period of 20 ~ 25 a of cultivation as compared with that during the period of 10 ~ 15 a; by 24.42% and 24.79% during the period of 30 ~ 35 a of cultivation as compared with that during the period of 20 ~ 25 a of cultivation; and by 0.74% and 0.17% during the period of 50 ~ 60 a of cultivation as compared with that during the period of 30 ~ 35 a of cultivation. And SQI began leveling off after 30 ~ 35 a of cultivation. The 0 ~ 20 cm soil layer was 65.69%, 93.85%, 53.53%, 53.08% and 86.95% in SQI than the 20 ~ 40 cm soil layer, respectively, in the farmland cultivated for <5 a, 10 ~ 15 a, 20 ~ 25 a, 30 ~ 35 a and 50 ~ 60 a.【Conclusion】All the findings in this study demonstrate that crop cultivation improves soil quality, and the effect varies with the cultivation going on. It is, therefore, advisable to conduct comprehensive scoring based on principle component analysis so as to objectively and efficiently evaluate soil quality of farmlands different in year of cultivation.
Key words:  Yellow River Delta  Principal component analysis  Soil quality  Years of cultivation