引用本文:陈同德,焦菊英,王颢霖,赵春敬,林 红.青藏高原土壤侵蚀研究进展[J].土壤学报,2020,57(3):547-564. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907020127
CHEN Tongde,JIAO Juying,WANG Haolin,ZHAO Chunjing,LIN Hong.Progress in Research on Soil Erosion in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(3):547-564. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907020127
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青藏高原土壤侵蚀研究进展
陈同德1,焦菊英1,2,王颢霖1,赵春敬1,林 红1
1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,陕西杨凌 712100;2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,陕西杨凌 712100
摘要:
青藏高原地貌类型多样,气候复杂,存在冻融、风力、水力和重力等多种侵蚀营力。在气候变化和高原人口增长的背景下,青藏高原的土壤侵蚀不断加剧。然而,相比我国其他区域,青藏高原的土壤侵蚀研究相对薄弱。通过梳理文献,对青藏高原的冻融侵蚀、风力侵蚀、水力侵蚀和重力侵蚀的研究现状进行了整理与分析,研究发现:冻融侵蚀的定义存在分歧,地质侵蚀和土壤侵蚀的概念存在混淆,与土壤侵蚀相关的基础研究缺乏。未来青藏高原研究应加强土壤侵蚀监测等基础工作,关注温度变化对土壤侵蚀的影响,重视土壤侵蚀防治工作,为保障我国生态屏障安全提供决策依据。
关键词:  土壤侵蚀  侵蚀类型  冻融作用  青藏高原
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20040202);第二次青藏高原综合考察研究(2019QZKK060300)
Progress in Research on Soil Erosion in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
CHEN Tongde1, JIAO Juying1, 2, WANG Haolin1, ZHAO Chunjing1, LIN Hong1
1. State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important ecological barrier in China, and plays an important role in maintaining climate stability, carbon balance and water resources. It is known as the "Asian water tower" and the "regulator" of the environment of Asia and even of the northern hemisphere. Under the background of global warming and population growth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is very sensitive to climate changes. As the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly diversified in landform, its climate is very complex. Therefore, there are many kinds of erosion forces, such as freezing-thawing, wind, water and gravity. The existing researches made use of RS and GIS, wind tunnel simulation, runoff plot monitoring and other experimental methods to study causes and temporal and spatial distribution of the different types of soil erosion. Some scholars also conducted experiments on soil erosion control in some regions, and evaluated effectiveness of the measures. Findings of these researches provide some valuable information for studies on soil erosion in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, compared with other parts of China, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is relatively new in the study on soil erosion. This paper collated and analyzed what has been done in the research on freeze-thaw erosion, wind erosion, water erosion and gravity erosion in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and found out some issues that call for attention. Firstly, divergence exists in definition of freeze-thaw erosion: e.g. freeze-thaw erosion should encompass the factors of wind, water, and gravity, or not? Secondly, geological erosion is confused with soil erosion in concept. Thicker humus layers are found in chestnut soil and mountain shrub soil in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau except for in Huangshui Valley, Qinghai Lake basin, Hefei Long Qu Valley and Lhasa River Valley, and the two types of soils are relatively mature. However, soils in the other areas contain many coarse gravels or gravels. Geological erosion is a natural process that carries not only includes soil particles, but also rocks and weathered rocks from slopes and banks. So, in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where gravels dominate in the surface layer, what happens more, soil erosion or geological erosion? And thirdly, the topic of soil erosion still lacks basic research. For example, temperature and soil moisture data are the basis for the study of freeze-thaw erosion, however, at present, changes in soil temperature are generally reflected by air temperature data, and soil moisture data of a large area are derived from remote sensing data, and measured data in field are very limited. Consequently, the model for evaluating freeze-thaw erosion is not very accurate; Runoff and sediment monitoring data are important information for exploring law of the water erosion on slopes at a watershed scale, however, besides the measured data of the areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway slope and Three-river Source, of other areas very limited data are available; and soil and vegetation data are the basic ones needed for evaluation of regional erosion, but little is measured. In the future, the study in this area should dedicate more effort to basic work, such as soil erosion monitoring, pay more attention to influence of changes in temperature on soil erosion, and attach more importance to prevention and control of soil erosion, so as to provide certain scientific basis for decision-making to protect the ecological barrier in China.
Key words:  Soil erosion  Erosion types  Freeze-thaw effect  Qinghai-Tibet Plateau